Computational Neuroscience Theoretical Insights into Brain Function

Author: Paul Cisek
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080555027
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Computational neuroscience is a relatively new but rapidly expanding area of research which is becoming increasingly influential in shaping the way scientists think about the brain. Computational approaches have been applied at all levels of analysis, from detailed models of single-channel function, transmembrane currents, single-cell electrical activity, and neural signaling to broad theories of sensory perception, memory, and cognition. This book provides a snapshot of this exciting new field by bringing together chapters on a diversity of topics from some of its most important contributors. This includes chapters on neural coding in single cells, in small networks, and across the entire cerebral cortex, visual processing from the retina to object recognition, neural processing of auditory, vestibular, and electromagnetic stimuli, pattern generation, voluntary movement and posture, motor learning, decision-making and cognition, and algorithms for pattern recognition. Each chapter provides a bridge between a body of data on neural function and a mathematical approach used to interpret and explain that data. These contributions demonstrate how computational approaches have become an essential tool which is integral in many aspects of brain science, from the interpretation of data to the design of new experiments, and to the growth of our understanding of neural function. • Includes contributions by some of the most influential people in the field of computational neuroscience • Demonstrates how computational approaches are being used today to interpret experimental data • Covers a wide range of topics from single neurons, to neural systems, to abstract models of learning

Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences on Brain Function

Author: Juan Y. Chiao
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080952216
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.

Evolution of the Primate Brain

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538674
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Written by internationally renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition

Slow Brain Oscillations of Sleep Resting State and Vigilance

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538380
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume of Progress in Brain Research documents research presented at the 26th International Summer School of Brain Research (Amsterdam, Jun/Jul 2010) and looks at how the oscillations that characterize brain activity vary between task performance - the EEG power and performance modulations, rest - the MRI default mode and other networks, and sleep - the cortical slow oscillations. Studies over the past decade indicate that the study of these slow oscillations is essential for our understanding of plasticity, memory, brain structure from synapse to default mode network, cognition, consciousness and ultimately for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of sleep and vigilance. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Web Intelligence Meets Brain Informatics

Author: Ning Zhong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540770275
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the First WICI International Workshop on Web Intelligence meets Brain Informatics, WImBI 2006, which was held in Beijing, China, in December 2006. The workshop explores a new perspective of Web Intelligence (WI) research from the viewpoint of Brain Informatics (BI). The 26 revised full-length papers presented together with three introductory lectures have been carefully reviewed and selected.

Advances in Soft Computing AFSS 2002

Author: Nikhil R. Pal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540431500
Format: PDF, Mobi
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It is our great pleasure to welcome you all to the 2002 AFSS International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (AFSS 2002) to be held in Calcutta, the great City of Joy. AFSS 2002 is the ?fth conference in the series initiated by the Asian Fuzzy Systems Society (AFSS). AFSS 2002 is jointly being organized by theIndianStatisticalInstitute(ISI)andJadavpurUniversity(JU). Likeprevious conferencesinthisseries,wearesure,AFSS2002willprovideaforumforfruitful interaction and exchange of ideas between the participants from all over the globe. The present conference covers all major facets of soft computing such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms including both theories and applications. Wehopethismeetingwillbeenjoyableacademicallyandotherwise. We are thankful to the members of the International Program Committee and the Area Chairs for extending their support in various forms to make a strong technical program. Each submitted paper was reviewed by at least three referees, and in some cases the revised versions were again checked by the ref- ees. As a result of this tough screening process we could select only about 50% of the submitted papers. We again express our sincere thanks to all referees for doing a great job. We are happy to note that 19 di?erent countries from all over the globe are represented by the authors, thereby making it a truly inter- tional conference. We are proud to have a list of distinguished speakers including Profs. Z. Pawlak, J. Bezdek, D. Dubois, and T. Yamakawa.

Towards a New Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling Natural Brain Dynamics

Author: Klaus Gramann
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889192717
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Decades of brain imaging experiments have revealed important insights into the architecture of the human brain and the detailed anatomic basis for the neural dynamics supporting human cognition. However, technical restrictions of traditional brain imaging approaches including functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) severely limit participants’ movements during experiments. As a consequence, our knowledge of the neural basis of human cognition is rooted in a dissociation of human cognition from what is arguably its foremost, and certainly its evolutionarily most determinant function, organizing our behavior so as to optimize its consequences in our complex, multi-scale, and ever-changing environment. The concept of natural cognition, therefore, should not be separated from our fundamental experience and role as embodied agents acting in a complex, partly unpredictable world. To gain new insights into the brain dynamics supporting natural cognition, we must overcome restrictions of traditional brain imaging technology. First, the sensors used must be lightweight and mobile to allow monitoring of brain activity during free participant movements. New hardware technology for electroencephalography (EEG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows recording electrical and hemodynamic brain activity while participants are freely moving. New data-driven analysis approaches must allow separation of signals arriving at the sensors from the brain and from non-brain sources (neck muscles, eyes, heart, the electrical environment, etc.). Independent component analysis (ICA) and related blind source separation methods allow separation of brain activity from non-brain activity from data recorded during experimental paradigms that stimulate natural cognition. Imaging the precisely timed, distributed brain dynamics that support all forms of our motivated actions and interactions in both laboratory and real-world settings requires new modes of data capture and of data processing. Synchronously recording participants’ motor behavior, brain activity, and other physiology, as well as their physical environment and external events may be termed mobile brain/body imaging ('MoBI'). Joint multi-stream analysis of recorded MoBI data is a major conceptual, mathematical, and data processing challenge. This Research Topic is one result of the first international MoBI meeting in Delmenhorst Germany in September 2013. During an intense workshop researchers from all over the world presented their projects and discussed new technological developments and challenges of this new imaging approach. Several of the presentations are compiled in this Research Topic that we hope may inspire new research using the MoBI paradigm to investigate natural cognition by recording and analyzing the brain dynamics and behavior of participants performing a wide range of naturally motivated actions and interactions.

The Boundaries of Consciousness

Author: Steven Laureys
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444528766
Format: PDF, Docs
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Consciousness is one of the most significant scientific problems today. Renewed interest in the nature of consciousness - a phenomenon long considered not to be scientifically explorable, as well as increasingly widespread availability of multimodal functional brain imaging techniques (EEG, ERP, MEG, fMRI and PET), now offer the possibility of detailed, integrated exploration of the neural, behavioral, and computational correlates of consciousness. The present volume aims to confront the latest theoretical insights in the scientific study of human consciousness with the most recent behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, pharmacological and neuropathological data on brain function in altered states of consciousness such as: brain death, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, hysteria, general anesthesia, sleep, hypnosis, and hallucinations. The interest of this is threefold. First, patients with altered states of consciousness continue to represent a major clinical problem in terms of clinical assessment of consciousness and daily management. Second, the exploration of brain function in altered states of consciousness represents a unique lesional approach to the scientific study of consciousness and adds to the worldwide effort to identify the "neural correlate of consciousness". Third, new scientific insights in this field have major ethical and social implications regarding our care for these patients.