Concrete Buildings in Seismic Regions Second Edition

Author: George G. Penelis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351578774
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Reinforced concrete (R/C) is one of the main building materials used worldwide, and an understanding of its structural performance under gravity and seismic loads, albeit complex, is crucial for the design of cost effective and safe buildings. Concrete Buildings in Seismic Regions comprehensively covers of all the analysis and design issues related to the design of reinforced concrete buildings under seismic action. It is suitable as a reference to the structural engineer dealing with specific problems during the design process and also for undergraduate and graduate structural, concrete and earthquake engineering courses. This revised edition provides new and significantly developed coverage of seismic isolation and passive devices, and coverage of recent code modifications as well as notes on future developments of standards. It retains an overview of structural dynamics, the analysis and design of new R/C buildings in seismic regions, post-earthquake damage evaluation, pre-earthquake assessment of buildings and retrofitting procedures, and several numerical examples. The book outlines appropriate structural systems for many types of buildings, explores recent developments, and covers the last two decades of analysis, design, and earthquake engineering. It specifically addresses seismic demand issues and the basic issues of structural dynamics, considers the "capacity" of structural systems to withstand seismic effects in terms of strength and deformation, and highlights the assessment of existing R/C buildings under seismic action. All of the material has been developed to fit a modern seismic code and offers in-depth knowledge of the background upon which the code rules are based. It complies with European Codes of Practice for R/C buildings in seismic regions, and includes references to current American Standards for seismic design.

Seismic Design of Precast Concrete Building Structures

Author: fib Fédération internationale du béton
Publisher: fib Fédération internationale du béton
ISBN: 9782883940673
Format: PDF, ePub
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The aim of this state-of-art report is to present current practices for use of precast and prestressed concrete in countries in seismic regions, to recommend good practice, and to discuss current developments. The report has been drafted by 30 contributors from nine different countries. This state-of-art report covers: state of the practice in various countries; advantages and disadvantages of incorporating precast reinforced and prestressed concrete in construction; lessons learned from previous earthquakes; construction concepts; design approaches; primary lateral load resisting systems (precast and prestressed concrete frame systems and structural walls including dual systems) diaphragms of precast and prestressed concrete floor units; modelling and analytical methods; gravity load resisting systems; foundations; and miscellaneous elements (shells, folded plates, stairs and architectural cladding panels). Design equations are reported where necessary, but the emphasis is on principles. Ordinary cast-in-place reinforced concrete is not considered in this report. This fib state-of-the-art report is intended to assist designers and constructors to provide safe and economical applications of structural precast concrete and at the same time to allow innovation in design and construction to continue. This Bulletin N° 27 was approved as an fib state-of-art report in autumn 2002 byfib Commission 7, Seismic design.

Displacement based Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Author: fib Fédération internationale du béton
Publisher: fib Fédération internationale du béton
ISBN: 9782883940659
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A brief summary of the history of seismic design as given in chapter 1, indicates that initially design was purely based on strength or force considerations. When the importance of displacement, however, became better appreciated, it was attempted to modify the existing force-based approach in order to include considerations of displacement, rather than to totally reconsider the procedure on a more rational basis. In the last decade, then, several researchers started pointing out this inconsistency, proposing displacement-based approaches for earthquake engineering evaluation and design, with the aim of providing improved reliability in the engineering process by more directly relating computed response and expected structural performance. The main objective of this report is to summarize, critically review and compare the displacement - based approaches proposed in the literature, thus favouring code implementation and practical use of rational and reliable methods. Chapter 2 Seismic performance and design objectives of this report introduces concepts of performance levels, seismic hazard representation, and the coupling of performance and hazard to define performance objectives. In fact, for displacement analysis to be relevant in the context of performance-based design, the structural engineer must select appropriate performance levels and seismic loadings. A critical review of some engineering limit states appropriate to the different performance levels is therefore proposed. In chapter 3 Conceptual basis for displacement-based earthquake resistant design, the fundamental principles associated with displacement of the ground during an earthquake and the effects, in terms of displacement, in the structure, are reviewed. The historical development guides the presentation with a review of general linear and nonlinear structural dynamics principles, general approaches to estimate displacement, for both ground and structure, and finally a general presentation of the means to measure and judge the appropriateness of the displacements of the structure in section. Chapter 4 Approaches and procedures for displacement-based design can be somehow considered the fundamental part of the report, since a critical summary of the displacement - based approaches proposed by different researchers is presented there. Displacement - based design may require specific characterization of the input ground motion, a topic addressed in Chapter 5 Seismic input. In general, various pertinent definitions of input motion for non-code format analysis are included, while peak ground parameters necessary for code base shear equations are only addressed as needed for the definition of motion for analysis. Chapter 6 Displacement capacity of members and systems addresses the fundamental problem of evaluating the inelastic displacement capacity of reinforced concrete members and realistic values of their effective cracked stiffness at yielding, including effects of shear and inclined cracking, anchorage slip, bar buckling and of load cycling. In Chapter 7 Application and evaluation of displacement-based approaches, some of the many different displacement based design procedures briefly introduced in Chapter 4 are applied to various case studies, identifying and discussing the difficulties a designer may encounter when trying to use displacement based design. Results for five different case studies designed in accordance with eight different displacement based design methods are presented. Although in general case studies are considered a useful but marginal part of a state of the art document, in this case it has to be noted that chapter 7 is possibly the most innovative and fundamental part of the whole report. The conclusions of chapter 7 are the fundamental and essential conclusions of the document and allow foreseeing a bright future for displacement - based design approaches. The state-of-art report has been elaborated over a period of 4 years by Task Group 7.2 Displacement-based design and assessment of fib Commission 7Seismic design, a truly international team of experts, representing the expertise and experience of all the important seismic regions of the world. In October 2002 the final draft of the Bulletin was presented to the public during the 1st fibCongress in Osaka. It was also there that it was approved by fib Commission 7Seismic Design.

Seismic Design of Buildings to Eurocode 8

Author: Ahmed Elghazouli
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203888944
Format: PDF, ePub
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Practical information and training has become urgently needed for the new Eurocode 8 on the Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, especially in relation to the underlying principles of seismic behaviour and the design of building structures. This book covers seismic design in a clear but brief manner and links the principles to the code, illustrated with design examples. Concrete and steel buildings, and their foundations, are given special emphasis but the book is widely applicable. It stems from practical short courses on seismic design, run jointly by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics and Imperial College London. Written by senior academics with significant consulting experience and by leading practitioners, it has a strong industry emphasis. It suits a wide range of practising civil and structural engineers, academics preparing courses and needing worked examples, and advanced undergraduate and Masters students in Earthquake, Structural or Geotechnical Engineering.

Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Author: fib Fédération internationale du béton
Publisher: fib Fédération internationale du béton
ISBN: 9782883940642
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In most parts of the developed world, the building stock and the civil infrastructure are ageing and in constant need of maintenance, repair and upgrading. Moreover, in the light of our current knowledge and of modern codes, the majority of buildings stock and other types of structures in many parts of the world are substandard and deficient. This is especially so in earthquake-prone regions, as, even there, seismic design of structures is relatively recent. In those regions the major part of the seismic threat to human life and property comes from old buildings. Due to the infrastructure's increasing decay, frequently combined with the need for structural upgrading to meet more stringent design requirements (especially against seismic loads), structural retrofitting is becoming more and more important and receives today considerable emphasis throughout the world. In response to this need, a major part of the fib Model Code 2005, currently under development, is being devoted to structural conservation and maintenance. More importantly, in recognition of the importance of the seismic threat arising from existing substandard buildings, the first standards for structural upgrading to be promoted by the international engineering community and by regulatory authorities alike are for seismic rehabilitation of buildings. This is the case, for example, of Part 3: Strengthening and Repair of Buildings of Eurocode 8 (i. e. of the draft European Standard for earthquake-resistant design), and which is the only one among the current (2003) set of 58 Eurocodes attempting to address the problem of structural upgrading. It is also the case of the recent (2001) ASCE draft standard on Seismic evaluation of existing buildings and of the 1996 Law for promotion of seismic strengthening of existing reinforced concrete structures in Japan. As noted in Chapter 1 of this Bulletin, fib - as CEB and FIP did before - has placed considerable emphasis on assessment and rehabilitation of existing structures. The present Bulletin is a culmination of this effort in the special but very important field of seismic assessment and rehabilitation. It has been elaborated over a period of 4 years by Task Group 7.1 Assessment and retrofit of existing structures of fib Commission 7 Seismic design, a truly international team of experts, representing the expertise and experience of all the important seismic regions of the world. In the course of its work the team had six plenary two-day meetings: in January 1999 in Pavia, Italy; in August 1999 in Raleigh, North Carolina; in February 2000 in Queenstown, New Zealand; in July 2000 in Patras, Greece; in March 2001 in Lausanne, Switzerland; and in August 2001 in Seattle, Washington. In October 2002 the final draft of the Bulletin was presented to public during the 1st fib Congress in Osaka. It was also there that it was approved by fib Commission 7 Seismic Design. The contents is structured into main chapters as follows: 1 Introduction - 2 Performance objectives and system considerations - 3 Review of seismic assessment procedures - 4 Strength and deformation capacity of non-seismically detailed components - 5 Seismic retrofitting techniques - 6 Probabilistic concepts and methods - 7 Case studies

Advances in Earthquake Engineering for Urban Risk Reduction

Author: S. Tanvir Wasti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402045719
Format: PDF, ePub
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Earthquakes affecting urban areas can lead to catastrophic situations and hazard mitigation requires preparatory measures at all levels. Structural assessment is the diagnosis of the seismic health of buildings. Assessment is the prelude to decisions about rehabilitation or even demolition. The scale of the problem in dense urban settings brings about a need for macro seismic appraisal procedures because large numbers of existing buildings do not conform to the increased requirements of new earthquake codes and specifications or have other deficiencies. It is the vulnerable buildings - liable to cause damage and loss of life - that need immediate attention and urgent appraisal in order to decide if structural rehabilitation and upgrading are feasible. Current economic, efficient and occupant-friendly rehabilitation techniques vary widely and include the application either of precast concrete panels or layers, strips and patches of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) in strategic locations. The papers in this book, many by renowned authorities in earthquake engineering, chart new and vital directions of research and application in the assessment and rehabilitation of buildings in seismic regions. While several papers discuss the probabilistic prediction and quantification of structural damage, others present approaches related with the in-situ and occupant friendly upgrading of buildings and propose both economical and practical techniques to address the problem.

Structural Optimization and Life cycle Sustainability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Seismic Regions

Author: Kazi Ashfaq Hossain
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recent devastating natural hazards worldwide have underscored hazard resilience as an important component of sustainability. This thesis presents a comprehensive sustainability quantification methodology for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to earthquakes by developing and using a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) framework. The sustainability components: cost associated with various stages (economic aspects), environmental emissions and waste generations (environmental aspects), and downtime (social aspects), are quantified as a part of this LCA framework. Although initial construction phase has a significant contribution to cost and environmental impact, future structural performance plays an important role by affecting repair cost, environmental impact due to repair activity, and death and downtime due to unsatisfactory performance. A structural optimization problem is introduced within the sustainability assessment framework for achieving optimality in seismic design. The proposed approach is novel because it incorporates all essential components of sustainability: economy, environment and society within the same framework, and because it assigns, for the first time, these components as performance objectives in order to obtain optimality in life-cycle performance. The developed sustainability assessment framework and structural optimization methodology is applied to a case study building to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach in reducing the lifetime impacts of RC buildings subjected to earthquakes.