Conjectures and Refutations

Author: Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415285940
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Conjectures and Refutations

Author: Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415285933
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error. Popper brilliantly demonstrates how knowledge grows by guesses or conjectures and tentative solutions, which must then be subjected to critical tests. Although they may survive any number of tests, our conjectures remain conjectures, they can never be established as true. What makes Conjectures and Refutations such an enduring book is that Popper goes on to apply this bold theory of the growth of knowledge to a fascinating range of important problems, including the role of tradition, the origin of the scientific method, the demarcation between science and metaphysics, the body-mind problem, the way we use language, how we understand history, and the dangers of public opinion. Throughout the book, Popper stresses the importance of our ability to learn from our mistakes. Conjectures and Refutations is essential reading, and a book to be returned to again and again.

Vermutungen und Widerlegungen

Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783161473111
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Die Bände I und II der Vermutungen und Widerlegungen liegen nun in einer preiswerten einbändigen Studienausgabe vor. Die beiden Teilbände in den bisherigen Ausgaben sind weiterhin lieferbar."In Vorträgen, also in lockerer Form, führt Popper seine wichtigsten Gedanken vor: daß die Wissenschaft durch kühne Hypothesen vorangetrieben wird; daß sich Theorien nicht bestätigen, sondern nur falsifizieren lassen; daß die Menschen die Chance haben, aus Fehlern zu lernen, und diese Chance nutzen sollten. Popper glaubt ..., daß ein Wachstum der Erkenntnis möglich ist."K.A. in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 25.11.1994, S. 39"Nach mehr als dreißig Jahren Abstand erscheinen so viele Passagen noch immer treffend und aktuell. Seine Kritik am neopositivistisch gefaßten Induktionsprinzip oder der Wissenschaft des Wiener Kreises insgesamt ... wird hier noch einmal aufgegriffen und ausführlicher entwickelt. ... Zahlreiche hier zusammengetragene Vorträge und Aufsätze beschäftigen sich scheinbar mit nur philosophiehistorisch interessanten Fragen. Doch immer versucht Popper die dahinterstehenden sachlichen Probleme zu fassen, die zu dieser jeweiligen philosophischen Theorie geführt haben."Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 1998, S. 84

Uncontrolled

Author: Jim Manzi
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 0465029310
Format: PDF, ePub
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How do we know which social and economic policies work, which should be continued, and which should be changed? Jim Manzi argues that throughout history, various methods have been attempted—except for controlled experimentation. Experiments provide the feedback loop that allows us, in certain limited ways, to identify error in our beliefs as a first step to correcting them. Over the course of the first half of the twentieth century, scientists invented a methodology for executing controlled experiments to evaluate certain kinds of proposed social interventions. This technique goes by many names in different contexts (randomized control trials, randomized field experiments, clinical trials, etc.). Over the past ten to twenty years this has been increasingly deployed in a wide variety of contexts, but it remains the red-haired step child of modern social science. This is starting to change, and this change should be encouraged and accelerated, even though the staggering complexity of human society creates severe limits to what social science could be realistically expected to achieve. Randomized trials have shown, for example, that work requirements for welfare recipients have succeeded like nothing else in encouraging employment, that charter school vouchers have been successful in increasing educational attainment for underprivileged children, and that community policing has worked to reduce crime, but also that programs like Head Start and Job Corps, which might be politically attractive, fail to attain their intended objectives. Business leaders can also use experiments to test decisions in a controlled, low-risk environment before investing precious resources in large-scale changes – the philosophy behind Manzi's own successful software company. In a powerful and masterfully-argued book, Manzi shows us how the methods of science can be applied to social and economic policy in order to ensure progress and prosperity.

Die Welt des Parmenides

Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783492240710
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ein Leben lang hat sich der aus Wien stammende Philosoph Karl R. Popper mit den Vorsokratikern Parmenides, Xenophanes, Heraklit und anderen auseinandergesetzt. Europa verdankt ihnen die Grundlegung seiner Philosophie, seiner Wissenschaft und seines Humanismus. In dieser einzigartigen Sammlung von Texten wird deutlich, wie die Urväter der Philosophie und Naturwissenschaft Probleme durchdacht haben. Popper zeigt in seiner klaren Sprache die erstaunliche Vielfalt und ungebrochene Aktualität frühgriechischen Denkens. >Parmenides öffnete mir die Augen für die poetische Schönheit der Erde und des gestirnten Himmels. Er lehrte mich, sie mit neuem Forscherblick zu betrachten.

The Sequence of Event Analysis in Criminal Trials

Author: Fabrizio D’Errico
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662478986
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents a general method that lawyers, prosecutors and judges can follows to assess the quality and scientific content of technical work done for an accident and crime scene reconstruction. Using multilevel sequence of events analysis allows all key events to be fully identified, which in turn assists judicial bodies in identifying where to assign specific criminal liability. Created from a concept long sought by the two authors (an engineer and an attorney), the method allows readers without any technical background to progress from an examination of evidence gathered at the scene of a complex accident and to reconstruct "beyond reasonable doubt" the events that took place. Once created and scientifically verified by the sequence of events analysis, the chain of key events serves as a reference source for various levels of complex organizations and inter-organization structures in cases involving complex criminal responsibilities.

Metaphysical Problems Political Solutions

Author: Asaf Z. Sokolowski
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739148176
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book seeks to read the political thought of classic thinkers of the liberal tradition in the context of their metaphysical and theological writings. Sokolowski demonstrates that the political measures offered by political theorists to remedy the state of unrest and instability are intrinsically connected to their metaphysical conception of order, the self, and the interaction between the two.

Falsifying Beckett

Author: Matthew Feldman
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 3838267060
Format: PDF, ePub
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The dozen essays brought together here, alongside a newly-written introduction, contextualize and exemplify the recent 'empirical turn' in Beckett studies. Characterized, above all, by recourse to manuscript materials in constructing revisionist interpretations, this approach has helped to transform the study of Samuel Beckett over the past generation. In addition to focusing upon Beckett's early immersion in philosophy and psychology, other chapters similarly analyze his later collaboration with the BBC through the lens of literary history. Falsifying Beckett thus offers new readings of Beckett by returning to his archive of notebooks, letters, and drafts. In reassessing key aspects of his development as one of the 20th century's leading artists, this collection is of interest to all students of Beckett's writing as well as ' historicist' scholars and critics of modernism more generally.