Conscience and Convenience

Author: David J. Rothman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351526537
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Conscience and Convenience was quickly recognized for its masterly depiction and interpretation of a major period of reform history. This history begins in a social context in which treatment and rehabilitation were emerging as predominant after America's prisons and asylums had been broadly acknowledged to be little more than embarrassing failures. The resulting progressive agenda was evident: to develop new, more humane and effective strategies for the criminal, delinquent, and mentally ill. The results, as Rothman documents, did not turn out as reformers had planned.For adult criminal offenders, such individual treatment could be accomplished only through the provision of broad discretionary authority, whereby choices could be made between probation, parole, indeterminate sentencing, and, as a measure of last resort, incarceration in totally redesigned prisons. For delinquents, the juvenile court served as a surrogate parent and accelerated and intensified individual treatment by providing for a series of community-based individual and family services, with the newly designed, school-like reformatories being used for only the most intractable cases. For the mentally ill, psychiatrists chose between outpatient treatments, short-term intensive care, or as last resort, long-term care in mental hospitals with new cottage and family-like arrangements. Rothman shows the consequences of these reforms as unmitigated disasters. Despite benevolent intentions, the actual outcome of reform efforts was to take the earlier failures of prisons and asylums to new, more ominous heights.In this updated edition, Rothman chronicles and examines incarceration of the criminal, the deviant, and the dependent in U.S. society, with a focus on how and why these methods have persisted and expanded for over a century and a half despite longstanding evidence of their failures and abuses.

The Punishment Imperative

Author: Todd R. Clear
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479851698
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the last 40 years, the US penal system has grown at an unprecedented rate—five times larger than in the past and grossly out of scale with the rest of the world. In The Punishment Imperative, eminent criminologists Todd R. Clear and Natasha A. Frost argue that America’s move to mass incarceration from the 1960s to the early 2000s was more than just a response to crime or a collection of policies adopted in isolation; it was a grand social experiment. Tracing a wide array of trends related to the criminal justice system, this book charts the rise of penal severity in America and speculates that a variety of forces—fiscal, political, and evidentiary—have finally come together to bring this great social experiment to an end. The authors stress that while the doubling of the crime rate in the late 1960s represented one of the most pressing social problems at the time, it was instead the way crime posed a political problem—and thereby offered a political opportunity—that became the basis for the great rise in punishment. Clear and Frost contend that the public’s growing realization that the severe policies themselves, not growing crime rates, were the main cause of increased incarceration eventually led to a surge of interest in taking a more rehabilitative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach to dealing with criminal offenders that still continues to this day. Part historical study, part forward-looking policy analysis, The Punishment Imperative is a compelling study of a generation of crime and punishment in America.

Criminological Theory

Author: J. Robert Lilly
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506387292
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Updated Edition of a Best-Seller! Offering a rich introduction to how scholars analyze crime, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences moves readers beyond a commonsense knowledge of crime to a deeper understanding of the importance of theory in shaping crime control policies. The Seventh Edition of the authors’ clear, accessible, and thoroughly revised text covers traditional and contemporary theory within a larger sociological and historical context. It includes new sources that assess the empirical status of the major theories, as well as updated coverage of crime control policies and their connection to criminological theory.

Criminology and Justice

Author:
Publisher: McGraw-Hill College
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This introduction to criminology, designed for course in criminology offered at two and four schools, is one of the most comprehensive, and well-researched books on the market. For use in both Sociology and Criminal Justice departments, this text offers detailed coverage of theories and types of crime.

Special Problems in Corrections

Author: Jeffrey Ian Ross
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780131138742
Format: PDF, Docs
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Sets out to identify the most pressing issues affecting the correctional system today. Maintaining a solutions-focus, the book organizes problems into two distinct categories: those impacting the convicts and correctional facilities and those impacting the correctional officers and administrators. It examines long-standing, and emerging issues from a critical perspective, grounding discussion in empirical research and current events. Using the consistent voice of a single author, the book offers a no nonsense approach to explaining the problems of correctional officers, correctional managers, prisoners, and the public.

Creating born criminals

Author: Nicole Hahn Rafter
Publisher: Univ of Illinois Pr
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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But Creating Born Criminals is much more than a look at the past. It is an exploration of the role of biological explanation as a form of discourse and of its impact upon society. While The Bell Curve and other recent books have stopped short of making eugenic recommendations, their contentions point toward eugenic conclusions, and people familiar with the history of eugenics can hear in them its echoes. Rafter demonstrates that we need to know how eugenic reasoning worked in the past and that we must recognize the dangers posed by the dominance of a theory that interprets social problems in biological terms and difference as biological inferiority.