Convergence of Knowledge Technology and Society

Author: Mihail C. Roco
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319022040
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume aims to document the most important worldwide accomplishments in converging knowledge and technology, including converging platforms, methods of convergence, societal implications, and governance in the last ten years. Convergence in knowledge, technology, and society is the accelerating, transformative interaction among seemingly distinct scientific disciplines, technologies, and communities to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value for societal benefit. It is a movement that is recognized by scientists and thought leaders around the world as having the potential to provide far-reaching solutions to many of today’s complex knowledge, technology, and human development challenges. Four essential and interdependent convergence platforms of human activity are defined in the first part of this report: nanotechnology-biotechnology-information technology and cognitive science (“NBIC”) foundational tools; Earth-scale environmental systems; human-scale activities; and convergence methods for societal-scale activities. The report then presents the main implications of convergence for human physical potential, cognition and communication, productivity and societal outcomes, education and physical infrastructure, sustainability, and innovative and responsible governance. As a whole, the report presents a new model for convergence. To effectively take advantage of this potential, a proactive governance approach is suggested. The study identifies an international opportunity to develop and apply convergence for technological, economic, environmental, and societal benefits. The panel also suggests an opportunity in the United States for implementing a program aimed at focusing disparate R and D energies into a coherent activity - a "Societal Convergence Initiative”. This study received input from leading academic, industry, government, and NGO experts from the United States, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.

Nanotechnology for Sustainable Development

Author: Mamadou S. Diallo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3319050419
Format: PDF
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The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water, and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This volume is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. Recent advances are highlighted and opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in water purification, clean energy, greenhouse gas management, materials supply/utilization and manufacturing are discussed. Also, societal perspectives are addressed and an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development is provided. This book offers a thematic collection of papers previously published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance

Author: William Sims Bainbridge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401703590
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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M. C. Roco and W.S. Bainbridge In the early decades of the 21st century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new technologies based in cognitive science. With proper attention to ethical issues and societal needs, converging in human abilities, societal technologies could achieve a tremendous improvement outcomes, the nation's productivity, and the quality of life. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society and humanity in the long term. The phrase "convergent technologies" refers to the synergistic combination of four major "NBIC" (nano-bio-info-cogno) provinces of science and technology, each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate: (a) nanoscience and nanotechnology; (b) biotechnology and biomedicine, including genetic engineering; (c) information technology, including advanced computing and communications; (d) cognitive science, including cognitive neuroscience. Timely and Broad Opportunity. Convergence of diverse technologies is based on material unity at the nanoscale and on technology integration from that scale.

Managing Nano Bio Info Cogno Innovations

Author: William Sims Bainbridge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402041075
Format: PDF, ePub
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With the convergence of Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science (NBIC) fields promising to change our competitive, operational, and employment landscape in fundamental ways, we find ourselves on the brink of a new technological and science-driven business revolution. The already emerging reality of convergence is to be found in genomics, robotics, bio-information and artificial intelligence applications, such as: • Self-assembled, self-cleaning and self-healing manufactured materials and textiles, and much stronger, lighter and more customizable structural materials, • Miniature sensors allowing unobtrusive real-time health monitoring and dramatically improved diagnosis; with greatly enhanced real time information to vehicles and drivers on the way, • New generations of supercomputers and efficient energy generators based on biological processes, • Greatly enhanced drug delivery from unprecedented control over fundamental structural properties and biocompatibility of materials. These advances are here already, or in development. And Japan, other Asian nations and Western European countries are investing heavily and moving aggressively to develop and apply NBIC technologies. Notwithstanding the passage of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, significant further funding and action by both government and private industry will be critical to maintaining US scientific and industry leadership.

Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology

Author: Paul Janmey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319179306
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

Convergence

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309301645
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and implementation challenges in areas such as infrastructure, student education and training, faculty advancement, and inter-institutional partnerships.

Knowing New Biotechnologies

Author: Matthias Wienroth
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317691512
Format: PDF
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The areas of personal genomics and citizen science draw on – and bring together – different cultures of producing and managing knowledge and meaning. They also cross local and global boundaries, are subjects and objects of transformation and mobility of research practices, evaluation and multi-stakeholder groups. Thirdly, they draw on logics of ‘convergence’: new links between, and new kinds of, stakeholders, spaces, knowledge, practices, challenges and opportunities. This themed collection of essays from nationally and internationally leading scholars and commentators advances and widens current debates in Science and Technology Studies and in Science Policy concerning ‘converging technologies’ by complementing the customary focus on technical aspirations for convergence with the analysis of the practices and logics of scientific, social and cultural knowledge production that constitute contemporary technoscience. In case studies from across the globe, contributors discuss the ways in which science and social order are linked in areas such as direct-to consumer genetic testing and do-it-yourself biotechnologies. Organised into thematic sections, ‘Knowing New Biotechnologies’ explores: • ways of understanding the dynamics and logics of convergences in emergent biotechnologies • governance and regulatory issues around technoscientific convergences • democratic aspects of converging technologies – lay involvement in scientific research and the co-production of biotechnology and social and cultural knowledge.

The Next Production Revolution Implications for Governments and Business

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264271031
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial...

Internet of Things

Author: Peter Friess
Publisher: River Publishers
ISBN: 8792982735
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The book aims to provide a broad overview of various topics of the Internet of Things (IoT) from the research and development priorities to enabling technologies, architecture, security, privacy, interoperability and industrial applications. It is intended to be a stand-alone book in a series that covers the Internet of Things activities of the IERC - Internet of Things European Research Cluster - from technology to international cooperation and the global "state of play." The book builds on the ideas put forward by the European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and presents views and state of the art results on the challenges facing the research, development and deployment of IoT at the global level. Today we see the integration of Industrial, Business and Consumer Internet which is bringing together the Internet of People, Internet of Things, Internet of Energy, Internet of Vehicles, Internet of Media, Services and Enterprises in forming the backbone of the digital economy, the digital society and the foundation for the future knowledge and innovation based economy. These developments are supporting solutions for the emerging challenges of public health, aging population, environmental protection and climate change, the conservation of energy and scarce materials, enhancements to safety and security and the continuation and growth of economic prosperity. Penetration of smartphones and advances in nanoelectronics, cyber-physical systems, wireless communication, software, and Cloud computing technology will be the main drivers for IoT development. The IoT contribution is seen in the increased value of information created by the number of interconnections among things and the transformation of the processed information into knowledge shared into the Internet of Everything. The connected devices are part of ecosystems connecting people, processes, data, and things which are communicating in the Cloud using the increased storage and computing power while attempting to standardize communication and metadata. In this context, the next generation of Cloud computing technologies will need to be flexible enough to scale autonomously, adaptive enough to handle constantly changing connections and resilient enough to stand up to the huge flows of data that will occur. In 2025, analysts forecast that there will be six devices per human on the planet, which means around 50 billion more connected devices over the next 12 years. The Internet of Things market is connected to this anticipated device growth from industrial Machine to Machine (M2M) systems, smart meters and wireless sensors. Internet of Things technology will generate new services and new interfaces by creating smart environments and smart spaces with applications ranging from Smart Cities, Smart Transport, Buildings, Energy, Grid, to Smart Health and Life.

Building the Hyperconnected Society

Author: Ovidiu Vermesan
Publisher: River Publishers
ISBN: 8793237995
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book aims to provide a broad overview of various topics of Internet of Things (IoT), ranging from research, innovation and development priorities to enabling technologies, nanoelectronics, cyber-physical systems, architecture, interoperability and industrial applications. All this is happening in a global context, building towards intelligent, interconnected decision making as an essential driver for new growth and co-competition across a wider set of markets. It is intended to be a standalone book in a series that covers the Internet of Things activities of the IERC – Internet of Things European Research Cluster from research to technological innovation, validation and deployment. The book builds on the ideas put forward by the European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda, and presents global views and state of the art results on the challenges facing the research, innovation, development and deployment of IoT in future years. The concept of IoT could disrupt consumer and industrial product markets generating new revenues and serving as a growth driver for semiconductor, networking equipment, and service provider end-markets globally. This will create new application and product end-markets, change the value chain of companies that creates the IoT technology and deploy it in various end sectors, while impacting the business models of semiconductor, software, device, communication and service provider stakeholders. The proliferation of intelligent devices at the edge of the network with the introduction of embedded software and app-driven hardware into manufactured devices, and the ability, through embedded software/hardware developments, to monetize those device functions and features by offering novel solutions, could generate completely new types of revenue streams. Intelligent and IoT devices leverage software, software licensing, entitlement management, and Internet connectivity in ways that address many of the societal challenges that we will face in the next decade.