Conversion of Former BTW Facilities

Author: Erhard Geissler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940115306X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The development, production, stockpiling and use in war of biological and toxin weapons are prohibited by international law. Although not explicitly stated, the two treaties outlawing such activities, the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, prohibit the continuation of activities previously performed in Biological and Toxin Weapons facilities not justified for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes. Because conversion and other means of cessation of former BTW facilities are not explicitly addressed in the treaties mentioned above the problems involved in conversion ofBTW facilities have thus far only been discussed marginally in the open literature. In times of increased awareness of the danger of biological and toxin warfare (including the increased danger of terrorist use of biological and toxin weapons) it seemed necessary to us to invite experts from different parts of the world to discuss the pros and cons of conversion and the problems involved. It also became obvious to us that the conversion of former BTW facilities should be discussed with respect to the necessity of peaceful internatioual cooperation in areas related to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. An additional reason to discuss matters of peaceful cooperation is that cooperation is explictly requested by Article X of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

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Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.

Defense Conversion Strategies

Author: Robert E. Dundervill, Jr.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401712131
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Studies Institute (AS I) on Defense Conversion Strategies was held at the Atholl Palace Hotel, Pitlochry, Perthshire, Scotland, from July 2 through July 14, 1995. This publication is the proceedings of the Institute. The NATO Advanced Studies Institute program of the NATO Science Committee is a unique and valuable forum under whose auspices over one thousand international tutorial meetings have been held since the inception of the program in 1959. The ASI is intended to be primarily a high-level teaching activity at which a carefully defined subject is presented in a systematic and coherently structured program. The subject is treated in considerable depth by lecturers eminent in their fields and of international standing. The subject is presented to other experts or practitioners who will already have specialized in the field or possess an advanced general background appropriate to the topic. The ASI is aimed at an audience at the post-doctoral level. This does not exclude advanced graduate students or other senior participants with qualifications and achievements in the subject of the ASI or rclated areas. This ASI was prompted by several events in the defense environment.

Science Policy

Author: Valentin A. Koptyug
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401101655
Format: PDF, Docs
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It is becoming increasingly clear that the future of the world cannot be sustained without scientific support, analysis, prediction and the use of scientific achievement. The immensity of the problems confronting us, coupled with the limited financial resources available, urgently demand the selection of priority areas of research, with a global combination of scientific effort. The new geopolitical situation has uncovered Russia's and the former Soviet Union's scientific potential. This has given rise to wider opportunities for involvement in work on international projects and programmes, many of which are discussed in the present volume. The book addresses specifically priority fields of science in which joint, multidisciplinary research should be developed, encompassing rational use of natural resources and regional sustainable development, as well as the monitoring of the biosphere's ecosystem state and the risks of natural and anthropogenic hazards, and the creation of new materials and technologies. The list of priorities includes Siberia's economic, social and humanitarian problems, as well as the development of information systems for the rapid exchange of scientific data. There is a recognised need for the involvement of young scientists in partnership laboratories, in a probationary capacity.

Smart Structures

Author: Jan Holnicki-Szulc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940114611X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Smart (intelligent) structures have been the focus of a great deal of recent research interest. In this book, leading researchers report the state of the art and discuss new ideas, results and trends in 43 contributions, covering fundamental research issues, the role of intelligent monitoring in structural identification and damage assessment, the potential of automatic control systems in achieving a desired structural behaviour, and a number of practical issues in the analysis and design of smart structures in mechanical and civil engineering applications. Audience: A multidisciplinary reference for materials scientists and engineers in such areas as mechanical, civil, aeronautical, electrical, control, and computer engineering.

Functional Gradient Materials and Surface Layers Prepared by Fine Particles Technology

Author: Marie-Isabelle Baraton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401007020
Format: PDF
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The NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Functional Gradient Materials and Surface Layers Prepared by Fine Particles Technology" was held in Kiev (Ukraine) on June 18- 28, 2000 where more than 90 participants, ranging from Ph.D. students to experienced senior scientists, met and exchanged ideas. This meeting was aimed at stimulating the research work across traditional disciplinary lines by bringing together scientists from diverse research areas related to functional gradient materials and surface layers. It also intended to give opportunities for initiating collaborative works between scientists from NATO and Partner countries and to trigger fruitful and exciting discussions between experienced and young researchers. In this respect, this NATO-ASI has been quite successful. The term of functional gradient materials which originates from Japan in the 1980's describes a class of engineering materials with spatially inhomogeneous microstructures and properties (MRS Bulletin, 1995,20, N°l). These materials can be successfully utilized in various applications like electronic devices, optical films, anti wear and anti-corrosion coatings, thermal barrier coatings, biomaterials, to name only a few. Although these functional gradient materials are not fundamentally new, the use of nanoparticles in their fabrication and in surface layers as well has greatly improved their performances to meet challenging requirements for industrial applications.

Photovoltaic and Photoactive Materials

Author: Joseph M. Marshall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401006326
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The primary objective of this NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was to present an up-to-date overview of various current areas of interest in the field of photovoltaic and related photoactive materials. This is a wide-ranging subject area, of significant commercial and environmental interest, and involves major contributions from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, materials, electrical and instrumentation engineering, commercial realisation etc. Therefore, we sought to adopt an inter disciplinary approach, bringing together recognised experts in the various fields while retaining a level of treatment accessible to those active in specific individual areas of research and development. The lecture programme commenced with overviews of the present relevance and historical development of the subject area, plus an introduction to various underlying physical principles of importance to the materials and devices to be addressed in later lectures. Building upon this, the ASI then progressed to more detailed aspects of the subject area. We were also fortunately able to obtain a contribution from Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot of the European Commission Directorate, describing present and future EC support for activities in this field. In addition, poster sessions were held throughout the meeting, to allow participants to present and discuss their current activities. These were supported by what proved to be very effective feedback sessions (special thanks to Martin Stutzmann), prior to which groups of participants enthusiastically met (often in the bar) to identify and agree topics of common interest.

Environmental Simulation Chambers Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author: Ian Barnes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042329
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.