Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: P. Letardi
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091266
Format: PDF, ePub
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The basic principles of corrosion and electrochemistry are briefly summarised to indicate the capabilities of electrochemical techniques in diagnostic and conservation of heritage metals. The basic elements of each electrochemical measurement – cell, electrolyte, instrumentation – are schematically illustrated in the specific application to cultural heritage. The different measurement techniques are reviewed, divided into three groups: (1) potential measurements; (2) DC techniques; (3) AC techniques. The aims and fields of application are discussed, reporting several examples of specific applications in the field of cultural heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: E. Cano
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091452
Format: PDF, Docs
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This chapter reviews the applicability and specific uses of corrosion inhibitors in metal conservation practice. Corrosion inhibitors are one of the different methods used by conservation-restoration professionals to preserve metallic cultural heritage. In the first part, specific requirements and needs for corrosion inhibitors in conservation treatments are reviewed, as well as the different methods for the assessment of their efficiency. The second part of the chapter reviews the different inhibitors used by type of metals: copper and its alloys, iron and its alloys, and other metals (including silver, lead and zinc), from traditional ones to state-of-the-art treatments.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: D. Neff
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091231
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This chapter introduces the techniques used when investigating corrosion layers formed on cultural heritage artefacts. Various multiscale analysis methods, from macroscopic to nanoscopic scales, are presented. Information on the morphology, the elementary composition and the crystalline structure that each method allows for determining the constituents of the corrosion layers is examined, as well as their limits in terms of set-up, spatial and detection resolution. This chapter discusses the characteristics of the scientific tools that can be used to understand corrosion phenomena, by taking into account the major parameters responsible for alteration mechanisms.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: D. Watkinson
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091215
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Relationships between conservation and corrosion scientists are assessed and similarities, differences and synergies identified. Corrosion control as a preservation option for heritage metals is advocated as being cost-effective and pragmatic. This will require generation of data to develop predictive conservation and estimation of object lifespan as a function of their intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Methods for quantitative determination of corrosion rates of chloride infested heritage iron and techniques for scaling to heritage value are discussed. The iron hull of the ss Great Britain and an AHRC/EPSRC Heritage Science Research Programme at Cardiff University are used to illustrate the rationale behind using corrosion control in heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: A. Adriaens
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091274
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This chapter discusses the evaluation of metal conservation treatments using a specialized electrochemical cell. The cell can be deployed in a synchrotron beam line to make in-situ, time-lapse measurements on heritage metal alloys undergoing processes based on electrochemical treatments/measurements. We focus on two specific projects: (1) the evaluation of currently used stabilization processes for cupreous objects recovered from marine environments, and (2) the development and testing of a coating to protect lead objects which is stable, reversible (i.e. easy to apply and to remove), protective against corrosion and aesthetically justified.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: P. Piccardo
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091290
Format: PDF, Docs
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‘Artistic/intentional’ patina is a surface layer intentionally produced by an artist or a specialized professional on a metallic artwork with aesthetic or practical purposes. From the science of surfaces point of view the ‘artistic’ patina could be considered as an interface between the metallic substrate and the external environment and therefore affecting, depending on its physical and chemical peculiarities, the corrosion process. In order to understand how the ‘artistic’ patina behaves inside the exposure environment, an experimental activity was carried out: the study of the data collected with the application of different analytical techniques contributed to a more pertinent knowledge of the characteristics of metallic works of art which, in turn, leads to a restoration process respecting their real nature.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: P. Vassiliou
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091304
Format: PDF, ePub
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The use of silver in ancient civilisations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ionia, Greece, Rome and China is presented. Principles of silver corrosion in different environments containing humidity, oxygen, carbonates, sulphur, chlorides, peroxides, ozone and UV, and the morphology of the corrosion layers are described. Cleaning, anti-tarnishing and protection methods are explained. Inhibitor hexadecanethiol (HDT) and a composite coating of Paraloid B-72 containing 2% nano-alumina pigment are tested on silver specimens with tarnished and corroded surfaces and found to be protective when exposed in sulphides and chloride environments in the laboratory, satisfying aesthetic and reversibility criteria.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: H. Matthiesen
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128091363
Format: PDF, ePub
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Oxygen is a key factor in corrosion and decay of artefacts from our cultural heritage. The measurement of oxygen concentrations and quantification of oxygen consumption is therefore extremely useful in both corrosion and conservation science. This chapter focuses on two aspects of oxygen monitoring: first, measurement of oxygen consumption of cultural heritage artefacts to evaluate their corrosion rate and the efficiency of conservation treatments, and second, measurement of oxygen concentration in the burial environment to evaluate the preservation conditions and understand the formation of different corrosion products in situ. The chapter includes a short description of equipment for oxygen measurement, and gives some examples of its use for monitoring purposes.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author: V. Argyropoulos
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 012809141X
Format: PDF, Docs
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This chapter discusses the importance of using standards in conservation methodology and practice for cultural heritage (CH) metals. The past general trend in the field is the use of metal industry standards. The chapter surveys the relevant scientific publications, and concludes that conservation researchers use a variety of these standards adopted by different organisations. As a result, it can be difficult to compare scientific data for CH metal studies carried out by different laboratories. The chapter discusses the necessity to draft new standards for metals specific for CH by examining how three independent researchers had different findings when testing the same coating. The role of CEN/TC 346 ‘Conservation of Cultural Heritage’ is also discussed.