Cottonwood and the River of Time

Author: Reinhard F. Stettler
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295800194
Format: PDF, ePub
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Cottonwood and the River of Time looks at some of the approaches scientists have used to unravel the puzzles of the natural world. With a lifetime of work in forestry and genetics to guide him, Reinhard Stettler celebrates both what has been learned and what still remains a mystery as he examines not only cottonwoods but also trees more generally, their evolution, and their relationship to society. Cottonwoods flourish on the verge, near streams and rivers. Their life cycle is closely attuned to the river's natural dynamics. An ever-changing floodplain keeps generating new opportunities for these pioneers to settle and prepare the ground for new species. Perpetual change is the story of cottonwoods -- but in a broader sense, the story of all trees and all kinds of life. Through the long parade of generation after generation, as rivers meander and glaciers advance and retreat, trees have adapted and persisted, some for thousands of years. How do they do this? And more urgently, what lessons can we learn from the study of trees to preserve and manage our forests for an uncertain future? In his search for answers, Stettler moves from the floodplain of a West Cascade river, where seedlings compete for a foothold, to mountain slopes, where aspens reveal their genetic differences in colorful displays; from the workshops of Renaissance artists who painted their masterpieces on poplar to labs where geneticists have recently succeeded in sequencing a cottonwood's genome; from the intensively cultivated tree plantations along the Columbia to old-growth forests challenged by global warming. Natural selection and adaptation, the comparable advantages and disadvantages of sexual versus asexual reproduction, the history of plant domestication, and the purposes, risks, and potential benefits of genetic engineering are a few of the many chapters in this story. By offering lessons in how nature works, as well as how science can help us understand it, Cottonwood and the River of Time illuminates connections between the physical, biological, and social worlds.

Functional Importance of the Plant Microbiome

Author: Sharon Lafferty Doty
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319658972
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book addresses all the major mechanisms by which endophytes are thought to impact plant growth and health. A unique aspect of this publication is that it is multidisciplinary, covering plant microbiology, plant physiology, fungal and bacterial endophytes, plant biochemistry, and genomics. Just as research on the mammalian microbiome has demonstrated its importance for overall health of the host, the plant microbiota is essential for plant health in natural environments. Endophytes, the microorganisms living fully within plants, can provide a multitude of benefits to the host including N-fixation, P solubilization, increased photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency, stress tolerance, pathogen resistance, and overall increased growth and health. A variety of culturable endophytes have been isolated and shown to be mutualistic symbionts with a broad range of plant species. These studies point to the functional importance of the microbiota of plants and suggest the potential for tailoring plant microbiota for improved vigor and yields with reduced inputs. This review covers the major benefits of microbial endophytes to plants and discusses the implications of using symbiosis as an alternative to chemical inputs for agriculture, forestry, and bioenergy.

The CABI Encyclopedia of Forest Trees

Author: CABI
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780642369
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The CABI Encyclopedia of Forest Trees provides an extensive overview of 300 of the world's most important forest trees. Tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal trees of major economic importance are included, covering tree species used in agroforestry practices around the world. Many of the species covered are considered to be multipurpose trees with uses extending beyond timber alone; the land uses such as watershed protection or provision of windbreaks, and non-wood uses such as the production of medicines, resins, food and forage, are also listed. Comprehensive information is presented on each tree's importance, with a summary of the main characteristics of the species, its potential for agroforestry use and any disadvantages it possesses. The tree's botanical features such as habit, stem form, foliage, inflorescence, flower and fruit characters and phenology are covered in detail with over 70 color plate pictures to aid identification. Also included are specific sections devoted to pests and diseases, distribution and silvicultural characteristics and practices, including seed sowing, nursery care, planting, thinning, and harvesting. In addition to the wealth of information detailed, based on datasheets from CABI's Forestry Compendium, selected references for further reading are provided for each entry, making this book an essential reference work for forestry students, researchers and practitioners.

The Cottonwood Tree

Author: Kathleen Cain
Publisher: Big Earth Publishing
ISBN: 9781555663704
Format: PDF, Kindle
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And so poet and naturalist Kathleen Cain fell in love with the cottonwood tree. Regarded by many as a nuisance, a "trash tree," the cottonwood not only has a fascinating history, it has served noble purposes as well. Ranging from Vermont to Arizona to Alaska, this native North American tree, in various sizes, shapes, and subspecies, has been a sacred symbol, a shelter providing relief from both heat and cold, a signpost for the lost and weary-and underneath its branches many dreams have been born.

Ceramics

Author: Philip Rawson
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812207343
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"It is rare to find a book on art that presents complex aesthetic principles in clear readable form. Ceramics, by Philip Rawson, is such a book. I discovered it ten years ago, and today my well-worn copy has scarcely a page on which some statement is not underlined and starred."—Wayne Higby, from the Foreword

Poplars and Willows

Author: Jud G. Isebrands
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780641087
Format: PDF, Docs
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Poplars and willows form an important component of forestry and agricultural systems, providing a wide range of wood and non-wood products. This book synthesizes research on poplars and willows, providing a practical worldwide overview and guide to their basic characteristics, cultivation and use, issues, problems and trends. Prominence is given to environmental benefits and the importance of poplar and willow cultivation in meeting the needs of people and communities, sustainable livelihoods, land use and development.

The Natural History of Puget Sound Country

Author: Arthur R. Kruckeberg
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 9780295974774
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Winner of the Pacific Northwest Booksellers Award Bounded on the east by the crest of the Cascade Range and on the west by the lofty east flank of the Olympic Mountains, Puget Sound terrain includes every imaginable topograhic variety. This thoughtful and eloquent natural history of the Puget Sound region begins with a discussion of how the ice ages and vulcanism shaped the land and then examines the natural attributes of the region--flora and fauna, climate, special habitats, life histories of key organisms--as they pertain to the functioning ecosystem. Mankind's effects upon the natural environment are a pervasive theme of the book. Kruckeberg looks at both positive and negative aspects of human interaction with nature in the Puget basin. By probing the interconnectedness of all natural aspects of one region, Kruckeberg illustrates ecological principles at work and gives us a basis for wise decision-making. The Natural History of Puget Sound Country is a comprehensive reference, invaluable for all citizens of the Northwest, as well as for conservationists, biologists, foresters, fisheries and wildlife personnel, urban planners, and environmental consultants everywhere. Lavishly illustrated with over three hundred photographs and drawings, it is much more than a beautiful book. It is a guide to our future.

Every Root an Anchor

Author: R. Bruce Allison
Publisher: Wisconsin Historical Society
ISBN: 0870203703
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In Every Root an Anchor, writer and arborist R. Bruce Allison celebrates Wisconsin's most significant, unusual, and historic trees. More than one hundred tales introduce us to trees across the state, some remarkable for their size or age, others for their intriguing histories. From magnificent elms to beloved pines to Frank Lloyd Wright's oaks, these trees are woven into our history, contributing to our sense of place. They are anchors for time-honored customs, manifestations of our ideals, and reminders of our lives' most significant events. For this updated edition, Allison revisits the trees' histories and tells us which of these unique landmarks are still standing. He sets forth an environmental message as well, reminding us to recognize our connectedness to trees and to manage our tree resources wisely. As early Wisconsin conservationist Increase Lapham said, "Tree histories increase our love of home and improve our hearts. They deserve to be told and remembered."

The Carbon Farming Solution

Author: Eric Toensmeier
Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing
ISBN: 1603585729
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With carbon farming, agriculture ceases to be part of the climate problem and becomes a critical part of the solution Agriculture is rightly blamed as a major culprit of our climate crisis. But in this groundbreaking new book, Eric Toensmeier argues that agriculture—specifically, the subset of practices known as “carbon farming”—can, and should be, a linchpin of a global climate solutions platform. Carbon farming is a suite of agricultural practices and crops that sequester carbon in the soil and in aboveground biomass. Combined with a massive reduction in fossil fuel emissions—and in concert with adaptation strategies to our changing environment— carbon farming has the potential to bring us back from the brink of disaster and return our atmosphere to the “magic number” of 350 parts per million of carbon dioxide. Toensmeier’s book is the first to bring together these powerful strategies in one place, including in-depth analysis of the available research and, where research is lacking, a discussion of what it will take to get us there. Carbon farming can take many forms. The simplest practices involve modifications to annual crop production. Although many of these modifications have relatively low sequestration potential, they are widely applicable and easily adopted, and thus have excellent potential to mitigate climate change if practiced on a global scale. Likewise, grazing systems such as silvopasture are easily replicable, don’t require significant changes to human diet, and—given the amount of agricultural land worldwide that is devoted to pasture—can be important strategies in the carbon farming arsenal. But by far, agroforestry practices and perennial crops present the best opportunities for sequestration. While many of these systems are challenging to establish and manage, and would require us to change our diets to new and largely unfamiliar perennial crops, they also offer huge potential that has been almost entirely ignored by climate crusaders. Many of these carbon farming practices are already implemented globally on a scale of millions of hectares. These are not minor or marginal efforts, but win-win solutions that provide food, fodder, and feedstocks while fostering community self-reliance, creating jobs, protecting biodiversity, and repairing degraded land—all while sequestering carbon, reducing emissions, and ultimately contributing to a climate that will remain amenable to human civilization. Just as importantly to a livable future, these crops and practices can contribute to broader social goals such as women’s empowerment, food sovereignty, and climate justice. The Carbon Farming Solution does not present a prescription for how cropland should be used and is not, first and foremost, a how-to manual, although following up on references in a given section will frequently provide such information. Instead, The Carbon Farming Solution is—at its root—a toolkit. It is the most complete collection of climate-friendly crops and practices currently available. With this toolkit, farmers, communities, and governments large and small, can successfully launch carbon farming projects with the most appropriate crops and practices to their climate, locale, and socioeconomic needs. Toensmeier’s ultimate goal is to place carbon farming firmly in the center of the climate solutions platform, alongside clean solar and wind energy. With The Carbon Farming Solution, Toensmeier wants to change the discussion, impact policy decisions, and steer mitigation funds to the research, projects, and people around the world who envision a future where agriculture becomes the protagonist in this fraught, urgent, and unprecedented drama of our time. Citizens, farmers, and funders will be inspired to use the tools presented in this important new book to transform degraded lands around the world into productive carbon-storing landscapes.

Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees

Author: Andrew Groover
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319493299
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Marking the change in focus of tree genomics from single species to comparative approaches, this book covers biological, genomic, and evolutionary aspects of angiosperm trees that provide information and perspectives to support researchers broadening the focus of their research. The diversity of angiosperm trees in morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry has been described and cataloged by various scientific disciplines, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this diversity have only recently been explored. Excitingly, advances in genomic and sequencing technologies are ushering a new era of research broadly termed comparative genomics, which simultaneously exploits and describes the evolutionary origins and genetic regulation of traits of interest. Within tree genomics, this research is already underway, as the number of complete genome sequences available for angiosperm trees is increasing at an impressive pace and the number of species for which RNAseq data are available is rapidly expanding. Because they are extensively covered by other literature and are rapidly changing, technical and computational approaches—such as the latest sequencing technologies—are not a main focus of this book. Instead, this comprehensive volume provides a valuable, broader view of tree genomics whose relevance will outlive the particulars of current-day technical approaches. The first section of the book discusses background on the evolution and diversification of angiosperm trees, as well as offers description of the salient features and diversity of the unique physiology and wood anatomy of angiosperm trees. The second section explores the two most advanced model angiosperm tree species (poplars and eucalypts) as well as species that are soon to emerge as new models. The third section describes the structural features and evolutionary histories of angiosperm tree genomes, followed by a fourth section focusing on the genomics of traits of biological, ecological, and economic interest. In summary, this book is a timely and well-referenced foundational resource for the forest tree community looking to embrace comparative approaches for the study of angiosperm trees.