Counter terrorism and the Detention of Suspected Terrorists

Author: Claire Macken
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136741860
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In a regional, national and global response to terrorism, the emphasis necessarily lies on preventing the next terrorist act. Yet, with prevention comes prediction: the need to identify and detain those considered likely to engage in a terrorist act in the future. The detention of ‘suspected terrorists’ is intended, therefore, to thwart a potential terrorist act recognising that retrospective action is of no consequence given the severity of terrorist crime. Although preventative steps against those reasonably suspected to have an intention to commit a terrorist act is sound counter-terrorism policy, a law allowing arbitrary arrest and detention is not. A State must carefully enact anti-terrorism laws to ensure that preventative detention does not wrongly accuse and grossly slander an innocent person, nor allow a terrorist to evade detection. This book examines whether the preventative detention of suspected terrorists in State counter-terrorism policy is consistent with the prohibitions on arbitrary arrest and detention in international human rights law. This examination is based on the ‘principle of proportionality’; a principle underlying the prohibition on arbitrary arrest as universally protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and given effect to internationally in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and regionally in regional instruments including the European Convention on Human Rights. The book is written from a global counter-terrorism perspective, drawing particularly on examples of preventative detention from the UK, US and Australia, as well as jurisprudence from the ECHR.

Preventive Detention of Terror Suspects

Author: Diane Webber
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317385497
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Preventive detention as a counter-terrorism tool is fraught with conceptual and procedural problems and risks of misuse, excess and abuse. Many have debated the inadequacies of the current legal frameworks for detention, and the need for finding the most appropriate legal model to govern detention of terror suspects that might serve as a global paradigm. This book offers a comprehensive and critical analysis of the detention of terror suspects under domestic criminal law, the law of armed conflict and international human rights law. The book looks comparatively at the law in a number of key jurisdictions including the USA, the UK, Israel, France, India, Australia and Canada and in turn compares this to preventive detention under the law of armed conflict and various human rights treaties. The book demonstrates that the procedures governing the use of preventive detention are deficient in each framework and that these deficiencies often have an adverse and serious impact on the human rights of detainees, thereby delegitimizing the use of preventive detention. Based on her investigation Diane Webber puts forward a new approach to preventive detention, setting out ten key minimum criteria drawn from international human rights principles and best practices from domestic laws. The minimum criteria are designed to cure the current flaws and deficiencies and provide a base line of guidance for the many countries that choose to use preventive detention, in a way that both respects human rights and maintains security.

Domestic Counter Terrorism in a Global World

Author: Daniel Alati
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134850387
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although both Canada and the United Kingdom had experienced terrorism prior to the attacks of 9/11 and already had in place extensive provisions to deal with terrorism, the events of that day led to the enactment of new and expansive counter-terrorism legislation being enacted in both jurisdictions. This book explores these changes to counter-terrorism laws and policies in the United Kingdom and Canada in order to demonstrate that despite the force of international legal instruments, including the heavily scrutinized UN Security Council Resolution 1373, the evolution of counter-terrorism policies in different jurisdictions is best analysed and understood as a product of local institutional structures and cultures. The book compares legal and political structures and cultures within Canada and the United Kingdom. It analyses variations in the evolution of post-9/11 counter-terrorism measures in the two jurisdictions and explores the domestic reasons for them. While focus is primarily geared towards security certificates and bail with recognizance/investigative hearings in Canada, and detention without trial, control orders and TPIMs in the United Kingdom , the use of secret evidence in the wider national security context (terrorist listing, civil litigation, criminal prosecutions, etc.) is also discussed. The book reveals how domestic structures and cultures, including the legal system, the relative stability of government, local human rights culture and geopolitical relationships all influence how counter-terrorism measures evolve. In this sense, the book utilizes a methodology that is both comparative and interdisciplinary by engaging in legal, political, historical and cultural analyses. This book will be particularly useful for target audiences in the fields of comparative law and criminal justice, counter-terrorism law, human rights law and international relations and politics.

Managing Fear

Author: Bernadette McSherry
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136215174
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Managing Fear examines the growing use of risk assessment as it relates to preventive detention and supervision schemes for offenders perceived to be at a high risk of re-offending, individuals with severe mental illness, and suspected terrorists. It outlines a number of legislative regimes in common law countries that have broadened ‘civil’ (as opposed to criminal) powers of detention and supervision. Drawing on the disciplines of criminology and social psychology, it explores how and why such schemes reflect a move towards curtailing liberty before harm results rather than after a crime has occurred. Human rights and ethical issues concerning the role of mental health practitioners in assessing risk for the purposes of preventive detention and supervision are explored, and regimes that require evidence from mental health practitioners are compared with those that rely on decision-makers’ notions of ‘reasonable belief’ concerning the risk of harm. Case studies are used to exemplify some of the issues relating to how governments have attempted to manage the fear of future harm. This book aims to educate mental health practitioners in the law relating to preventive detention and supervision schemes and how the legal requirements differ from clinical assessment practices; examine the reasons why there has been a recent renewal of preventive detention and supervision schemes in common law countries; provide a comparative overview of existing preventive detention and supervision schemes; and analyse the human rights implications and the ethics of using forensic risk assessment techniques for preventive detention and supervision schemes.

Counter Terrorism and Beyond

Author: Andrew Lynch
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136958541
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book considers the increasing trend towards a ‘culture of control’ in democratic countries. The post-9/11 counter-terrorism laws in nations such as the USA, the UK, Canada and Australia provide a stark demonstration of this trend. These laws share a focus on the pre-emption of crime, restrictions on the right to liberty of non-suspects, limited public access to information, and increased community surveillance. The laws derogate, in many respects, from the ordinary principles of the criminal justice system and fundamental human rights while also harnessing public institutions in the broader project of prevention and control. Distinctively, the contributors to this volume focus on the impact of these laws outside of the counter-terrorism context. The book draws together a range of experts in both public and criminal law, from Australia and overseas, to examine the effect of counter-terrorism laws on public institutions within democracies more broadly. Issues considered include changes to the role and functions of the courts, the expansion of executive discretion, the seepage of extraordinary powers and pre-emptive measures into other areas of the criminal law, and the interaction and overlap between intelligence and law enforcement agencies. Counter-Terrorism and Beyond: The Culture of Law and Justice After 9/11 will be of interest to students and scholars of criminal law, criminology, comparative criminal justice, terrorism and national security, public law, human rights, governance and public policy.

Developments in Counter Terrorist Measures and Uses of Technology

Author: Helen Fenwick
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135703760
Format: PDF
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This book considers some of the most notable aspects of the legal response to the "war on terror" post- 9/11 and the use of technology to support them. It examines the shift from a criminal justice response to the creation of a parallel preventive system running in tandem with it. This system has tended to veer away from the commission of criminal offences or adherence to ordinary criminal justice safeguards. Such a preventive strategy relies on targeting terrorist suspects – those who it is thought may in future commit terrorist acts – and curbing their actions with the aim of preventing terrorist activity before it occurs. The book further considers the role that surveillance plays in the counter-terrorist efforts of state or non-state actors. It also evaluates the counter-productive effects that many of these measures have had. This book was originally published as a special issue of International Review of Law Computers & Technology.

US National Security Intelligence and Democracy

Author: Russell A. Miller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134064438
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume examines the investigation by the 1975 Senate Select Committee (‘Church Committee’) into US intelligence abuses during the Cold War, and considers its lessons for the current ‘war on terror’. This report remains the most thorough public record of America’s intelligence services, and many of the legal boundaries operating on US intelligence agencies today are the direct result of reforms proposed by the Church Committee, including the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. The Church Committee also drew attention to the importance of constitutional government as a Congressional body overseeing the activities of the Executive branch. Placing the legacy of the Church Committee in the context of the contemporary debate over US national security and democratic governance, the book brings together contributions from distinguished policy leaders and scholars of law, intelligence and political science.