Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies

Author: Michael Leitner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074997X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recent years in North America have seen a rapid development in the area of crime analysis and mapping using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. In 1996, the US National Institute of Justice (NIJ) established the crime mapping research center (CMRC), to promote research, evaluation, development, and dissemination of GIS technology. The long-term goal is to develop a fully functional Crime Analysis System (CAS) with standardized data collection and reporting mechanisms, tools for spatial and temporal analysis, visualization of data and much more. Among the drawbacks of current crime analysis systems is their lack of tools for spatial analysis. For this reason, spatial analysts should research which current analysis techniques (or variations of such techniques) that have been already successfully applied to other areas (e.g., epidemiology, location-allocation analysis, etc.) can also be employed to the spatial analysis of crime data. This book presents a few of those cases.

Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis

Author: Richard Wortley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317487095
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Environmental criminology is a term that encompasses a range of overlapping perspectives. At its core, the many strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control, and prevention of crime. This new edition brings together leading theorists and practitioners in the field to provide a comprehensive, integrative coverage of the field of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book is divided into three sequential parts: • Understanding the crime event explores routine activity approach, crime pattern theory, the rational choice perspective, and situational precipitators of crime. • Analysing crime patterns discusses crime mapping, offender mobility, repeat victimisation, geographic profiling, and crime scripts. • Preventing and controlling crime covers topics including problem oriented policing, situational crime prevention, and environmental design. Fully updated and including new chapters on crime scripts and offender mobility, a scene-setting introductory overview, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, this text is an essential and comprehensive resource for practitioners and students taking courses on environmental criminology, crime analysis, and crime prevention.

The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making

Author: Wim Bernasco
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199338817
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Although the issue of offender decision-making pervades almost every discussion of crime and law enforcement, only a few comprehensive texts cover and integrate information about the role of decision-making in crime. The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making provide high-quality reviews of the main paradigms in offender decision-making, such as rational choice theory and dual-process theory. It contains up-to-date reviews of empirical research on decision-making in a wide range of decision types including not only criminal initiation and desistance, but also choice of locations, times, targets, victims, methods as well as large variety crimes including homicide, robbery, domestic violence, burglary, street crime, sexual crimes, and cybercrime. Lastly, it provides in-depth treatments of the major methods used to study offender decision-making, including experiments, observation studies, surveys, offender interviews, and simulations. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Handbook will quickly become the primary source of theoretical, methodological, and empirical knowledge about decision-making as it relates to criminal behavior.

GIS Technology Applications in Environmental and Earth Sciences

Author: Bai Tian
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498776051
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book starts with an overview of GIS technology, what GIS technology is, what it can do, what software products are available, etc. Then, throughout the book, the author explains with many case studies, programs, maps, graphics, and 3D models how GIS and other related technologies can be used to automate mapping processes, collect, process, edit, store, manage, and share datasets, statistically analyze data, model, and visualize large datasets to understand patterns, trends, and relationships to make educated decisions. This book is an excellent resource for anyone who is interested in GIS and related technologies, geology, natural resource, and environmental science.

Citizen Empowered Mapping

Author: Michael Leitner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319516288
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book promotes the exploitation of novel and emerging approaches for mapping environmental and urban informatics empowered by citizens. The book includes diverse case studies from, Mexico, the United States and Czech Republic. The book includes diverse case studies from, Mexico, the United States and Czech Republic. The topics covered in this collection are of interest for research scholars, practitioners, postgraduates, and professionals from a variety of disciplines including geography, environmental science, geographic information science, social science, and computer science.

Einf hrung in die Kristallographie

Author: Will Kleber
Publisher: Oldenbourg Verlag
ISBN: 3486598856
Format: PDF, ePub
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Das dynamische Fachgebiet wird in seiner gesamten Bandbreite dargestellt, wodurch sich das Buch auch den Studierenden verwandter Fachrichtungen wie z.B. Physik, Chemie und Werkstoffwissenschaft als eines der besten deutschsprachigen Lehrwerke empfiehlt.

Dynamik der Gewalt

Author: Randall Collins
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783868542301
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Es gibt viele Arten von Gewalt - vom Schlag ins Gesicht bis zu umfassenden und organisierten Ereignissen wie einem Krieg. Gewalt kann leidenschaftlich und wütend sein oder gefühllos und unpersönlich; sie kann Spaß machen oder von Angst geprägt und bösartig sein; sie kann im Verborgenen oder öffentlich geschehen; sie dient bei Sportveranstaltungen, in einem Actionfilm oder als Hauptmeldung der Nachrichten programmierter Unterhaltung; sie ist schrecklich und heroisch, widerwärtig und aufregend; sie ist die verfemteste und verklärteste aller menschlichen Handlungsweisen. Obwohl es Zeiten gibt, in denen uns Gewalt allgegenwärtig erscheint, hält Randall Collins den tatsächlichen Ausbruch von gewalttätigen Handlungen für eine Ausnahme. In seiner Analyse der Dynamik der Gewalt legt der renommierte amerikanische Soziologe den Fokus auf die situative Interaktion zwischen den Kontrahenten. Ob eine spannungsgeladene Situation zu gewalttätigen Handlungen führt, hängt seiner Untersuchung zufolge nicht in erster Linie von der sozialen Herkunft, der Ethnie oder dem kulturellen Hintergrund der Beteiligten ab, sondern häufig von der Situation, in der sie stattfindet. Akribisch genau untersucht Collins das Verhalten, die Mimik und Gestik der Kontrahenten auf Videoaufnahmen, nutzt aktuelle Erkenntnisse der Forensik und ethnografische Studien. Seine Schlussfolgerungen sind überraschend: Gewalt entsteht keineswegs mühelos oder gar automatisch. Die Streitparteien sind angesichts einer möglichen Konfrontation angespannt und ängstlich, sie agieren dilettantisch und ihre Ängste errichten eine mächtige emotionale Barriere gegen den Ausbruch von Gewalt. Collins begleitet seine Leserinnen und Leser durch die sehr realen und beunruhigenden Welten der menschlichen Zwietracht - von der häuslichen Gewalt, über Mobbing auf dem Schulhof und gewalttätige Sportarten bis hin zu bewaffneten Konflikten.