Cross Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems

Author: Dirk Broer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420046304
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Liquid crystal displays were discovered in the 1960s, and today we continue to enjoy the benefits of that fundamental discovery and its translation into a wide variety of products. Like liquid crystals, polymers are unusual materials, and have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research attention because of their vast applications and uses and complex fundamental properties. The combination of liquid crystal and polymer properties produces a broad array of new effects—spanning from densely crosslinked, rigid polymer networks to weakly crosslinked elastomers—that are not simply manifestations of either native liquid crystals or polymers alone. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems brings together liquid crystal and polymer systems and their variations. The field, much like traditional liquid crystals, is one of an interdisciplinary nature with a broad spectrum, from the very fundamental questions of nature to a myriad of practical uses. There seems to be no shortage of unusual properties and far-reaching applications in densely crossed-linked liquid crystal systems and liquid crystal elastomers. These systems provide a rich new avenue for both fundamental and applied research and continue to fascinate scientists and engineers. Specifically, this book covers: Cross-linked networks created from reactive mesogen materials Manipulation of liquid crystalline by external constraints Advances in liquid crystal display screen technology Physical and electromagnetic properties of elastomers and magnetic gels Computer simulations and theory of liquid crystal polymeric networks and elastomers Side-on nematic liquid-crystalline elastomers for artificial muscle applications Liquid crystal display technology has driven much of the fundamental research in crosslinked liquid crystalline systems. The systems’ ability to enforce three-dimensional structure in the molecular order and capture it created a number of compelling application possibilities because it provided necessary control of the molecular order. This book advances the understanding of basic science behind these systems, accelerates some of the proposed applications to the marketplace, and hopes to inspire generations of scientists to think broadly about these exciting and useful materials.

DNA Liquid Crystalline Dispersions and Nanoconstructions

Author: Yuri M. Yevdokimov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439871485
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The discovery of the spatial structure of the double-stranded DNA molecule is one of the greatest achievements of science. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the DNA double helix is a distinguished symbol of modern biology. Divided into three parts, DNA Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions and Nanoconstructions covers the information presently available on the condensation of various forms of DNA and describes practical applications of the peculiar properties of the liquid-crystalline particles. Part 1 describes the main methods used for condensation of linear high- and low-molecular mass DNA, including their complexes with polycations and circular DNA Part 2 compares the state and reactivity of double-stranded nucleic acid molecules fixed spatially in the liquid-crystalline as well as the same molecules under intracellular conditions Part 3 explains how the discovery of the fundamental principles underlying the formation of nucleic acid liquid-crystalline dispersion particles opens a gate for the operational use of these principles in the area of nanotechnology and biosensorics With detailed coverage of DNA liquid crystals, this book provides an understanding of the information presently available on the condensation of various forms of DNA. Double-stranded nucleic acids, spatially organized in a liquid-crystalline structure, represent an important polyfunctional tool for molecular biology and nanobiotechnology. The possibility of programmed and controlled variations in the properties of these molecules and in the characteristics of their liquid-crystalline dispersions, provides wide options for the formation of biologically active three-dimensional structures with unique, widely applicable properties.

Nanostructures and Nanoconstructions based on DNA

Author: Yuri M. Yevdokimov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466505699
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Evolutionally optimized biomolecules and their complexes present attractive objects in the production of functionalized nanoobjects. Indeed, nucleic acid-based molecules are primary candidates as building blocks for development of nanoscale systems and devices. Written for chemists, physicists, molecular biologists, and students in related fields, Nanostructures and Nanoconstructions Based on DNA covers specific properties of metallic nanoparticles, and compares their properties with those related to nanoobjects formed by biological molecules. It also discloses details of formation and physicochemical peculiarities of the DNA nanostructures and DNA-based nanoconstructions. Furthermore, the book considers: The peculiarities of two approaches to structural DNA nanotechnology, i.e. to creation of spatial nanoobjects formed by DNA molecules and their complexes: (i) the hybridization approach and (ii) the liquid-crystalline approach The physicochemical properties of DNA nanostructures as well as "liquid" and "rigid" DNA-based nanoconstructions The connection of liquid crystalline phase formation in DNA with possible nanotechnological applications This timely reference covers more DNA physics and molecular biology than any other published title. The authors discuss how nucleic acid molecules and their complexes with chemical and biologically active compounds are an area of increasing significance in the development of various nanoscale systems and devices of practical importance.

Synthesis Characterization and Theory of Polymeric Networks and Gels

Author: Shaul M. Aharoni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461530164
Format: PDF, Docs
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Polymer science is a technology-driven science. More often than not, technological breakthroughs opened the gates to rapid fundamental and theoretical advances, dramatically broadening the understanding of experimental observations, and expanding the science itself. Some of the breakthroughs involved the creation of new materials. Among these one may enumerate the vulcanization of natural rubber, the derivatization of cellulose, the giant advances right before and during World War II in the preparation and characterization of synthetic elastomers and semi crystalline polymers such as polyesters and polyamides, the subsequent creation of aromatic high-temperature resistant amorphous and semi-crystal line polymers, and the more recent development of liquid-crystalline polymers mostly with n~in-chain mesogenicity. other breakthroughs involve the development of powerful characterization techniques. Among the recent ones, the photon correlation spectroscopy owes its success to the advent of laser technology, small angle neutron scattering evolved from n~clear reactors technology, and modern solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy exists because of advances in superconductivity. The growing need for high modulus, high-temperature resistant polymers is opening at present a new technology, that of more or less rigid networks. The use of such networks is rapidly growing in applications where they are used as such or where they serve as matrices for fibers or other load bearing elements. The rigid networks are largely aromatic. Many of them are prepared from multifunctional wholly or almost-wholly aromatic kernels, while others contain large amount of stiff difunctional residus leading to the presence of many main-chain "liquid-crystalline" segments in the "infinite" network.

Physik kondensierter Materie

Author: Gert Strobl
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642559867
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Das Buch gründet auf einer Vorlesung in Freiburg, welche, am Beginn des Hauptstudiums angeboten, gleichermaßen in die Festkörperphysik wie auch die Physik von Flüssigkeiten, Flüssigkristallen und Polymeren einführt. Die verschiedenen Formen kondensierter Materie werden in fünf Kapiteln, Strukturen, Suszeptibilitäten, Molekularfelder, Ströme und die Dynamik betreffend, jeweils gemeinsam behandelt. Die Intention des Buches ist die zusammenhängende Darstellung von Begriffen und Konzepten, die bei der Erfassung der Eigenschaften kondensierter Materie einzuführen sind, unter Verzicht auf eine Schilderung der vielen Einzelheiten. Das Ziel besteht in der Schaffung einer breiten Verständnisgrundlage, von der ausgehend dann ein einfaches Weitergeben und eine Vertiefung in viele Richtungen ermöglicht werden soll.

Lyotrope Fl ssigkristalle

Author: Horst Stegemeyer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642587127
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Lyotrope Flüssigkristalle stellen den ältesten Typ des vierten Zustandes der Materie dar, welcher die Eigenschaften kristalliner Festkörper und normaler Flüssigkeiten in sich vereint und deshalb Mesophase genannt wird. Trotz vielfältiger Anwendungsmöglichkeiten in Medizin, Pharmazie und Kosmetik führen sie im Vergleich zu den konkurrierenden thermotropen Mesophasen immer noch ein Schattendasein. Ziel dieses Buches ist es, den Chemikern, Physikern und Pharmazeuten sowie Studenten höherer Semester die Grundlagen lyotroper Flüssigkristalle nahezubringen, ihre Verwandtschaft sowie Unterschiede zu thermotropen Flüssigkristallen herauszuarbeiten und die vielfältigen Möglichkeiten ihrer Anwendung aufzuzeigen.

Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963304
Format: PDF, ePub
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Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Materials and Manufacturing Research. The editors have built Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Materials and Manufacturing Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.