Crystal Growth Technology

Author: K. Byrappa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540003670
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with "Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: Hans J. Scheel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527632891
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Semiconductors and dielectrics are two essential materials found in cell phones and computers, for example, and both are manufactured by growing crystals. Edited by the organizers of the International Workshop on Crystal Growth Technology, this ready reference is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists, physicists, computer hardware manufacturers, engineers, and those working in the chemical and semiconductor industries. They have assembled an international team of experts who present the current challenges, latest methods and new applications for producing these materials necessary for the electronics industry using bulk crystal growth technology. From the contents: * General aspects of crystal growth technology * Compound semiconductors * Halides and oxides * Crystal growth for sustaining energy * Crystal machining

Crystal Growth From Fundamentals to Technology

Author: Georg Müller
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080473079
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The book contains 5 chapters with 19 contributions form internationally well acknowledged experts in various fields of crystal growth. The topics are ranging from fundamentals (thermodynamic of epitaxy growth, kinetics, morphology, modeling) to new crystal materials (carbon nanocrystals and nanotubes, biological crystals), to technology (Silicon Czochralski growth, oxide growth, III-IV epitaxy) and characterization (point defects, X-ray imaging, in-situ STM). It covers the treatment of bulk growth as well as epitaxy by anorganic and organic materials.

Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth

Author: Dirk Ehrentraut
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642048302
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book discusses the important technological aspects of the growth of GaN single crystals by HVPE, MOCVD, ammonothermal and flux methods for the purpose of free-standing GaN wafer production.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Advances in Crystal Growth Inhibition Technologies

Author: Zahid Amjad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306469243
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
In this book, academic researchers and technologists will find important information on the interaction of polymeric and non-polymeric inhibitors with a variety of scale forming crystals such as calcium phosphates, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalates, barium sulfate, calcium pyrophosphates, and calcium phosphonates. Moreover, the book delivers information to plant managers and formulators who would like to broaden and deepen their knowledge about processes involved in precipitation of sparingly soluble salts and learn more about the inhibitory aspects of various commercially available materials. Furthermore, experienced researchers will obtain fruitful and inspiring ideas from the easily accessible information about overlapping research areas, which will promote discoveries of new inhibitors (synthetic and/or natural) for the currently unmet challenges.

Crystal Growth in Science and Technology

Author: H. Arend
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461305497
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.

Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author: Govindhan Dhanaraj
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540747611
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.