Curved Spaces

Author: P. M. H. Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139510436
Format: PDF, ePub
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This self-contained 2007 textbook presents an exposition of the well-known classical two-dimensional geometries, such as Euclidean, spherical, hyperbolic, and the locally Euclidean torus, and introduces the basic concepts of Euler numbers for topological triangulations, and Riemannian metrics. The careful discussion of these classical examples provides students with an introduction to the more general theory of curved spaces developed later in the book, as represented by embedded surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, and their generalization to abstract surfaces equipped with Riemannian metrics. Themes running throughout include those of geodesic curves, polygonal approximations to triangulations, Gaussian curvature, and the link to topology provided by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Numerous diagrams help bring the key points to life and helpful examples and exercises are included to aid understanding. Throughout the emphasis is placed on explicit proofs, making this text ideal for any student with a basic background in analysis and algebra.

Elementary Differential Geometry

Author: Andrew Pressley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852331528
Format: PDF
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Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood. Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques. It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates. Elementary Differential Geometrypresents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum. Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times. Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there. The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecturers, and for all others interested in the subject. Andrew Pressley is Professor of Mathematics at Kings College London, UK. The Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series (SUMS) is a series designed for undergraduates in mathematics and the sciences worldwide. From core foundational material to final year topics, SUMS books take a fresh and modern approach and are ideal for self-study or for a one- or two-semester course. Each book includes numerous examples, problems and fully worked solutions.

Geometry and Topology

Author: Miles Reid
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521848893
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Geometry provides a whole range of views on the universe, serving as the inspiration, technical toolkit and ultimate goal for many branches of mathematics and physics. This book introduces the ideas of geometry, and includes a generous supply of simple explanations and examples. The treatment emphasises coordinate systems and the coordinate changes that generate symmetries. The discussion moves from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometries, including spherical and hyperbolic geometry, and then on to affine and projective linear geometries. Group theory is introduced to treat geometric symmetries, leading to the unification of geometry and group theory in the Erlangen program. An introduction to basic topology follows, with the Möbius strip, the Klein bottle and the surface with g handles exemplifying quotient topologies and the homeomorphism problem. Topology combines with group theory to yield the geometry of transformation groups,having applications to relativity theory and quantum mechanics. A final chapter features historical discussions and indications for further reading. With minimal prerequisites, the book provides a first glimpse of many research topics in modern algebra, geometry and theoretical physics. The book is based on many years' teaching experience, and is thoroughly class-tested. There are copious illustrations, and each chapter ends with a wide supply of exercises. Further teaching material is available for teachers via the web, including assignable problem sheets with solutions.

Geometry of M bius Transformations

Author: Vladimir V Kisil
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1908977604
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a unique exposition of rich and inspiring geometries associated with Möbius transformations of the hypercomplex plane. The presentation is self-contained and based on the structural properties of the group SL2(R). Starting from elementary facts in group theory, the author unveils surprising new results about the geometry of circles, parabolas and hyperbolas, using an approach based on the Erlangen programme of F Klein, who defined geometry as a study of invariants under a transitive group action. The treatment of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic Möbius transformations is provided in a uniform way. This is possible due to an appropriate usage of complex, dual and double numbers which represent all non-isomorphic commutative associative two-dimensional algebras with unit. The hypercomplex numbers are in perfect correspondence with the three types of geometries concerned. Furthermore, connections with the physics of Minkowski and Galilean space-time are considered. Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 1: Erlangen Programme: Preview (267 KB) Contents:Erlangen Programme: PreviewGroups and Homogeneous SpacesHomogeneous Spaces from the Group SL2(R)The Extended Fillmore–Springer–Cnops ConstructionIndefinite Product Space of CyclesJoint Invariants of Cycles: OrthogonalityMetric Invariants in Upper Half-PlanesGlobal Geometry of Upper Half-PlanesInvariant Metric and GeodesicsConformal Unit DiskUnitary Rotations Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in geometry and algebra. Keywords:SL2(R);Elliptic;Parabolic;Hyperbolic;Complex Numbers;Dual Numbers;Double Numbers;Split-Complex Numbers;Möbius Transformations;Geometry;Hyperbola;Parabola;Circle;Symmetry;Group;Geodesics;Invariant;Orthogonality;Conic Sections;Distance;Length

Compact Riemann Surfaces

Author: Jürgen Jost
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540330677
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is novel in its broad perspective on Riemann surfaces: the text systematically explores the connection with other fields of mathematics. The book can serve as an introduction to contemporary mathematics as a whole, as it develops background material from algebraic topology, differential geometry, the calculus of variations, elliptic PDE, and algebraic geometry. The book is unique among textbooks on Riemann surfaces in its inclusion of an introduction to Teichmüller theory. For this new edition, the author has expanded and rewritten several sections to include additional material and to improve the presentation.

Matrix Mathematics

Author: Dennis S. Bernstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691140391
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Each chapter in this book describes relevant background theory followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identitites, inequalities, and matrix facts are stated clearly with cross references, citations to the literature, and illuminating remarks.

Scalar Vector and Matrix Mathematics

Author: Dennis S. Bernstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888255
Format: PDF
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The essential reference book on matrices—now fully updated and expanded, with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Since its initial publication, this book has become the essential reference for users of matrices in all branches of engineering, science, and applied mathematics. In this revised and expanded edition, Dennis Bernstein combines extensive material on scalar and vector mathematics with the latest results in matrix theory to make this the most comprehensive, current, and easy-to-use book on the subject. Each chapter describes relevant theoretical background followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identities, inequalities, and facts are stated clearly and rigorously, with cross-references, citations to the literature, and helpful comments. Beginning with preliminaries on sets, logic, relations, and functions, this unique compendium covers all the major topics in matrix theory, such as transformations and decompositions, polynomial matrices, generalized inverses, and norms. Additional topics include graphs, groups, convex functions, polynomials, and linear systems. The book also features a wealth of new material on scalar inequalities, geometry, combinatorics, series, integrals, and more. Now more comprehensive than ever, Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics includes a detailed list of symbols, a summary of notation and conventions, an extensive bibliography and author index with page references, and an exhaustive subject index. Fully updated and expanded with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Covers the latest results in matrix theory Provides a list of symbols and a summary of conventions for easy and precise use Includes an extensive bibliography with back-referencing plus an author index

A Second Course in Mathematical Analysis

Author: J. C. Burkill
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521523431
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Classic calculus text reissued in Cambridge Mathematical Library. Clear, logical with many examples.

Projective Geometry

Author: Albrecht Beutelspacher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521483643
Format: PDF
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A textbook on projective geometry that emphasises applications in modern information and communication science.

Lectures on Classical Differential Geometry

Author: Dirk Jan Struik
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486656090
Format: PDF, Docs
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Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student. Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there. For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.