Decoding the Mechanisms of Antikythera Astronomical Device

Author: Jian-Liang Lin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662484471
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book presents a systematic design methodology for decoding the interior structure of the Antikythera mechanism, an astronomical device from ancient Greece. The historical background, surviving evidence and reconstructions of the mechanism are introduced, and the historical development of astronomical achievements and various astronomical instruments are investigated. Pursuing an approach based on the conceptual design of modern mechanisms and bearing in mind the standards of science and technology at the time, all feasible designs of the six lost/incomplete/unclear subsystems are synthesized as illustrated examples, and 48 feasible designs of the complete interior structure are presented. This approach provides not only a logical tool for applying modern mechanical engineering knowledge to the reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism, but also an innovative research direction for identifying the original structures of the mechanism in the future. In short, the book offers valuable new insights for all readers who are interested in the Antikythera mechanism.

Decoding the Heavens

Author: Josephine Marchant
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 043401835X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"In 1900 a group of sponge divers blown off course in the Mediterranean discovered an Ancient Greek shipwreck dating from around 70 BC. Lying unnoticed for months amongst their hard-won haul was what appeared to be a formless lump of corroded rock, which turned out to be the most stunning scientific artefact we have from antiquity. For more than a century this Antikythera mechanism' puzzled academics, but now, more than 2000 years after the device was lost at sea, scientists have pieced together its intricate workings. Unmatched in complexity for 1000 years, it was able to predict eclipses and track the paths of the Sun and the Moon through the zodiac, and probably even showed ancient astronomers the movements of the five known planets. In Decoding the Heavens, Jo Marchant tells for the first time the story of the 100-year quest to understand this ancient computer. Along the way she unearths a diverse cast of remarkable characters ranging from Archimedes to Jacques Cousteau and explores the deep roots of modern technology not only in ancient Greece but in the Islamic world and medieval Europe too. At heart an epic adventure story, it is a book that challenges our assumption

Decoding the Heavens

Author: Jo Marchant
Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
ISBN: 1459600096
Format: PDF, ePub
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In Decoding the Heavens, Jo Marchant tells for the first time the full story of the hundred-year quest to decipher the ancient Greek computer known as the Antikythera Mechanism. Along the way she unearths a diverse cast of remarkable characters and explores the deep roots of modern technology in ancient Greece and the medieval European and Islamic worlds. At its heart, this is an epic adventure and mystery, a book that challenges our assumptions about technology through the ages.

Mechanism and Machine Science

Author: Xianmin Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811028753
Format: PDF, Mobi
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These proceedings collect the latest research results in mechanism and machine science, intended to reinforce and improve the role of mechanical systems in a variety of applications in daily life and industry. Gathering more than 120 academic papers, it addresses topics including: Computational kinematics, Machine elements, Actuators, Gearing and transmissions, Linkages and cams, Mechanism design, Dynamics of machinery, Tribology, Vehicle mechanisms, dynamics and design, Reliability, Experimental methods in mechanisms, Robotics and mechatronics, Biomechanics, Micro/nano mechanisms and machines, Medical/welfare devices, Nature and machines, Design methodology, Reconfigurable mechanisms and reconfigurable manipulators, and Origami mechanisms. This is the fourth installment in the IFToMM Asian conference series on Mechanism and Machine Science (ASIAN MMS 2016). The ASIAN MMS conference initiative was launched to provide a forum mainly for the Asian community working in Mechanism and Machine Science, in order to facilitate collaboration and improve the visibility of activities in the field. The series started in 2010 and the previous ASIAN MMS events were successfully held in Taipei, China (2010), Tokyo, Japan (2012), and Tianjin, China (2014). ASIAN MMS 2016 was held in Guangzhou, China, from 15 to 17 December 2016, and was organized by the South China University under the patronage of the IFToMM and the Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES). The aim of the Conference was to bring together researchers, industry professionals and students from the broad range of disciplines connected to Mechanism Science in a collegial and stimulating environment. The ASIAN MMS 2016 Conference provided a platform allowing scientists to exchange notes on their scientific achievements and establish new national and international collaborations concerning the mechanism science field and its applications, mainly but not exclusively in Asian contexts.

A Portable Cosmos

Author: Alexander Jones
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019973934X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From the Dead Sea Scrolls to the Terracotta Army, ancient artifacts have long fascinated the modern world. However, the importance of some discoveries is not always immediately understood. This was the case in 1901 when sponge divers retrieved a lump of corroded bronze from a shipwreck at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea near the Greek island of Antikythera. Little did the divers know they had found the oldest known analog computer in the world, an astonishing device that once simulated the motions of the stars and planets as they were understood by ancient Greek astronomers. Its remains now consist of 82 fragments, many of them containing gears and plates engraved with Greek words, that scientists and scholars have pieced back together through painstaking inspection and deduction, aided by radiographic tools and surface imaging. More than a century after its discovery, many of the secrets locked in this mysterious device can now be revealed. In addition to chronicling the unlikely discovery of the Antikythera Mechanism, author Alexander Jones takes readers through a discussion of how the device worked, how and for what purpose it was created, and why it was on a ship that wrecked off the Greek coast around 60 BC. What the Mechanism has uncovered about Greco-Roman astronomy and scientific technology, and their place in Greek society, is truly amazing. The mechanical know-how that it embodied was more advanced than anything the Greeks were previously thought capable of, but the most recent research has revealed that its displays were designed so that an educated layman could understand the behavior of astronomical phenomena, and how intertwined they were with one's natural and social environment. It was at once a masterpiece of machinery as well as one of the first portable teaching devices. Written by a world-renowned expert on the Mechanism, A Portable Cosmos will fascinate all readers interested in ancient history, archaeology, and the history of science.

The Antikythera Mechanism

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781542408417
Format: PDF, Mobi
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*Includes pictures *Chronicles the discovery and theories over the mechanism's origins and capabilities *Includes footnotes, online resources and a bibliography for further reading. *Includes a table of contents "It multiplies, divides and subtracts, but you can't program it." - Michael Edmunds Discovering ancient shipwrecks hasn't been a novelty for thousands of years, but when artifacts were salvaged from a Roman shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900, the discovery of one set off one of the great mysteries of antiquity. When sponge divers investigated the shipwreck, they found the kind of items often associated with such discoveries, including marble statues, pottery, jewelry, and coins, but they also discovered a strange object, the likes of which nobody had ever seen before. Initially assumed to be pieces of rock, it turned out that the item, soon to be dubbed the Antikythera mechanism, consisted of dozens of pieces, many of which had gears. In fact, while scholars quickly deduced that it had an astronomical purpose, many believed the mechanism was too advanced to actually date back to antiquity. As it turned out, of course, the Antikythera mechanism did date back to the 1st or 2nd century BCE, and as scholars began to more fully comprehend its abilities, fascination over the device grew. In conjunction with the determination that the mechanism was an analog computer of sorts that could predict astronomical phenomena like the positions of stars and eclipses, conjecture over the origins of the device led to theories over what the Romans were going to do with it, and whether the device was created by the Greek genius Archimedes himself. To this day, debate continues over whether there were predecessors to the model, where the astronomical observations that went into creating the model were taken, and whether the ultimate origins of the device might even be Babylonian. The Antikythera Mechanism: The History and Mystery of the Ancient World's Most Famous Astronomical Device chronicles the discovery and study of the famous device. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Antikythera mechanism like never before, in no time at all.

The Power of Stars

Author: Bryan E. Penprase
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319525972
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Completely revised and updated, this new edition provides a readable, beautifully illustrated journey through world cultures and the vibrant array of sky mythology, creation stories, models of the universe, temples and skyscrapers that each culture has created to celebrate and respond to the power of the night sky. Sections on the archaeoastronomy of South Asia and South East Asia have been expanded, with original photography and new research on temple alignments in Southern India, and new material describing the astronomical practices of Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. Beautiful photographs of temples in India and Asia have been added, as well as new diagrams explaining the alignment of these structures and the astronomical underpinnings of temples within the Pallava and Chola cultures. From new fieldwork in the Four Corners region of North America, Dr. Penprase has included accounts of Pueblo skywatching and photographs of ceremonial kivas that help elucidate the rich astronomical knowledge of the Pueblo people. The popular “Archaeoastronomy of Skyscrapers” section of the book has been updated as well, with new interpretations of skyscrapers in Indonesia, Taiwan and China.With the rapid pace of discovery in astronomy and astrophysics, entirely new perspectives are emerging about dark matter, inflation and the future of the universe. The Power of Stars puts these discoveries in context and describes how they fit into the modern perspective of cosmology, which has arisen from the universal human response to the sky that has inspired both ancient and modern cultures.

The Computability of the World

Author: Bernd-Olaf Küppers
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319673696
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this thought-provoking book Küppers, an internationally renowned physicist, philosopher and theoretical biologist, addresses a number of science's deepest questions: Can physics advance to the origin of all things and explain the unique phenomena of life, time and history? Are there unsolvable enigmas of the world? How did life originate? Is language a general phenomenon of Nature? What is time? Is it possible to express the history of the world in formulae? Where is science leading us? These and other provocative questions essential for a deeper understanding of the world are treated here in a refreshing and stimulating manner.