Decreasing Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Gas Emissions in Transportation

Author: Michael Palocz-Andresen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364211976X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Within all areas of transportation, solutions for economical and environmentally friendly technology are being examined. Fuel consumption, combustion processes, control and limitation of pollutants in the exhaust gas are technological problems, for which guidelines like 98/69/EC and 99/96 determine the processes for the reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Apart from technological solutions, the consequences of international legislation and their effects on environmental and climate protection in the area of the transportation are discussed.

CONAT 2016 International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

Author: Anghel Chiru
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319454471
Format: PDF, Docs
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The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA.

Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

Author: Asif Faiz
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821334447
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Contributions by Surhid Gautam and Lit-Mian Chan. This book presents a state-of-the art review of vehicle emission standards and regulations and provides a synthesis of worldwide experience with vehicle emission control technologies and their applications in both industrial and developing countries. Topics covered include: * The two principal international systems of vehicle emission standards: those of North America and Europe * Test procedures used to verify compliance with emissions standards and to estimate actual emissions * Engine and aftertreatment technologies that have been developed to enable new vehicles to comply with emission standards, as well as the cost and other impacts of these technologies * An evaluation of measures for controlling emissions from in-use vehicles * The role of fuels in reducing vehicle emissions, the benefits that could be gained by reformulating conventional gasoline and diesel fuels, the potential benefits of alternative cleaner fuels, and the prospects for using hydrogen and electric power to run motor vehicles with ultra-low or zero emissions. This book is the first in a series of publications on vehicle-related pollution and control measures prepared by the World Bank in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme to underpin the Bank's overall objective of promoting transport that is environmentally sustainable and least damaging to human health and welfare.

Environmental Law Policy and Economics

Author: Nicholas Askounes Ashford
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262012383
Format: PDF, Docs
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Traces important legal, economic, and scientific developments in the environmental field through an examination of environmental law cases and commentaties by leading scholars, focusing on pollution prevention and control and emphasizing the evaluation, design, and use of the law to stimulate technological change and industrial transformation. The past twenty-five years have seen a significant evolution in environmental policy, with new environmental legislation and substantive amendments to earlier laws, significant advances in environmental science, and changes in the treatment of science (and scientific uncertainty) by the courts. This book offers a detailed discussion of the important issues in environmental law, policy, and economics, tracing their development over the past few decades through an examination of environmental law cases and commentaries by leading scholars. The authors focus on pollution, addressing both pollution control and prevention, but also emphasize the evaluation, design, and use of the law to stimulate technical change and industrial transformation, arguing that there is a need to address broader issues of sustainable development. Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics, which grew out of courses taught by the authors at MIT, treats the traditional topics covered in most classes in environmental law and policy, including common law and administrative law concepts and the primary federal legislation. But it goes beyond these to address topics not often found in a single volume: the information-based obligations of industry, enforcement of environmental law, market-based and voluntary alternatives to traditional regulation, risk assessment, environmental economics, and technological innovation and diffusion. Countering arguments found in other texts that government should play a reduced role in environmental protection, this book argues that clear, stringent legal requirements--coupled with flexible means for meeting them--and meaningful stakeholder participation are necessary for bringing about environmental improvements and technologicial transformations. This book is regularly updated online at http://mitpress.mit.edu/ashford_environmental_law

Transport Systems Telematics

Author: Jerzy Mikulski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642164722
Format: PDF, ePub
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The idea of telematics appeared more than a decade ago and it is possible to define it, in a general and simple way, as a communication system for collecting, processing and distributing information. The transport services market is definitely the most important area for telematic applications. Transport-telematics issues constitute a field of knowledge of transport that integrates information technology and telecommunications in applications for managing and controlling traffic in transport systems, stimulating technical and organizational activities that ensure improved effectiveness and safe operation of such systems. Integrated and cooperating telematic applications constitute intelligent transport systems. The basis of such systems is to efficiently collect and process information and to manage its flow within the system. This enables supplying information from almost all areas of transport activities in real time. Intelligent transport––supported by a number of integrated telecommunications, IT measurement and control engineering solutions, and by appropriate tools and software––comprises telematic applications. They have an extensive range of use in many areas of transport, allowing the integration of the means and types of transport, including its infrastructure, business organization and management processes. This monograph is a collection of selected papers presented at the jubilee transport telematics conference, TST 2010, and is the result of the work of many scientists associated with this area of knowledge and who had spent years with the conference.

Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery

Author: Apostolos Pesiridis
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781633214934
Format: PDF, ePub
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Concerns for fuel economy and reduced emissions have turned the attention of automotive internal combustion engine manufacturers to the exhaust system and towards technological system development to account for the significant levels of potential energy that can be recovered. The present volume on Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery for both gasoline and diesel engines is therefore both timely and appropriate. Whereas diesel engines have been predominantly turbocharged, only a relatively small percentage of gasoline engines are similarly equipped, which has led to significant efforts by engine manufacturers in recent years to downsize and down-speed these engines. On the other hand, the relative focus in diesel engine development in terms of emissions and exhaust energy recovery has shifted toward devices other than the turbocharger for enhanced energy recovery and emissions control technologies in order to allow the diesel engines of the future to keep up with the dual-demand for very low emissions and increasing levels of fuel economy. The book focuses on the exhaust system and the technologies and methods used to reduce emissions and increase fuel economy by capitalising on the exhaust gas energy availability (either in the form of gas kinetic energy or as waste heat extracted from the exhaust gas). It is projected that in the short to medium term, advances in exhaust emissions and energy recovery technologies will lead the way in internal combustion engine development and pave the way towards increasing levels of engine hybridisation until fully electric vehicle technology can claim a level of maturity and corresponding market shares to turn the bulk of this focus away from the internal combustion engine. This book is aimed at engine research professionals in the industry and academia, but also towards students of powertrain engineering. The collection of articles in this book reviews the fundamentals of relevance, recent exhaust system technologies, details recent or on-going projects and uncovers future research directions and potentials.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309159470
Format: PDF, ePub
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Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S. The miles-per-gallon measure used to regulate the fuel economy of passenger cars. is not appropriate for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, which are designed above all to carry loads efficiently. Instead, any regulation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should use a metric that reflects the efficiency with which a vehicle moves goods or passengers, such as gallons per ton-mile, a unit that reflects the amount of fuel a vehicle would use to carry a ton of goods one mile. This is called load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC). The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.

Cost Effectiveness and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309373913
Format: PDF, Docs
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The light-duty vehicle fleet is expected to undergo substantial technological changes over the next several decades. New powertrain designs, alternative fuels, advanced materials and significant changes to the vehicle body are being driven by increasingly stringent fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards. By the end of the next decade, cars and light-duty trucks will be more fuel efficient, weigh less, emit less air pollutants, have more safety features, and will be more expensive to purchase relative to current vehicles. Though the gasoline-powered spark ignition engine will continue to be the dominant powertrain configuration even through 2030, such vehicles will be equipped with advanced technologies, materials, electronics and controls, and aerodynamics. And by 2030, the deployment of alternative methods to propel and fuel vehicles and alternative modes of transportation, including autonomous vehicles, will be well underway. What are these new technologies - how will they work, and will some technologies be more effective than others? Written to inform The United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards, this new report from the National Research Council is a technical evaluation of costs, benefits, and implementation issues of fuel reduction technologies for next-generation light-duty vehicles. Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles estimates the cost, potential efficiency improvements, and barriers to commercial deployment of technologies that might be employed from 2020 to 2030. This report describes these promising technologies and makes recommendations for their inclusion on the list of technologies applicable for the 2017-2025 CAFE standards.