Defending Copernicus and Galileo

Author: Maurice Finocchiaro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048132010
Format: PDF
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Although recent works on Galileo’s trial have reached new heights of erudition, documentation, and sophistication, they often exhibit inflated complexities, neglect 400 years of historiography, or make little effort to learn from Galileo. This book strives to avoid such lacunae by judiciously comparing and contrasting the two Galileo affairs, that is, the original controversy over the earth’s motion ending with his condemnation by the Inquisition in 1633, and the subsequent controversy over the rightness of that condemnation continuing to our day. The book argues that the Copernican Revolution required that the hypothesis of the earth’s motion be not only constructively supported with new reasons and evidence, but also critically defended from numerous old and new objections. This defense in turn required not only the destructive refutation, but also the appreciative understanding of those objections in all their strength. A major Galilean accomplishment was to elaborate such a reasoned, critical, and fair-minded defense of Copernicanism. Galileo’s trial can be interpreted as a series of ecclesiastic attempts to stop him from so defending Copernicus. And an essential thread of the subsequent controversy has been the emergence of many arguments claiming that his condemnation was right, as well as defenses of Galileo from such criticisms. The book’s particular yet overarching thesis is that today the proper defense of Galileo can and should have the reasoned, critical, and fair-minded character which his own defense of Copernicus had.

Controversies Within the Scientific Revolution

Author: Marcelo Dascal
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027218951
Format: PDF, Kindle
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From the beginning of the Scientific Revolution around the late sixteenth century to its final crystallization in the early eighteenth century, hardly an observational result, an experimental technique, a theory, a mathematical proof, a methodological principle, or the award of recognition and reputation remained unquestioned for long. The essays collected in this book examine the rich texture of debates that comprised the Scientific Revolution from which the modern conception of science emerged. Were controversies marginal episodes, restricted to certain fields, or were they the rule in the majority of scientific domains? To what extent did scientific controversies share a typical pattern, which distinguished them from debates in other fields? Answers to these historical and philosophical questions are sought through a close attention to specific controversies within and across the changing scientific disciplines as well as across the borders of the natural and the human sciences, philosophy, theology, and technology.

Galileo and the Conflict between Religion and Science

Author: Gregory W. Dawes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131726889X
Format: PDF, Docs
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For more than 30 years, historians have rejected what they call the ‘warfare thesis’ – the idea that there is an inevitable conflict between religion and science – insisting that scientists and believers can live in harmony. This book disagrees. Taking as its starting point the most famous of all such conflicts, the Galileo affair, it argues that religious and scientific communities exhibit very different attitudes to knowledge. Scripturally based religions not only claim a source of knowledge distinct from human reason. They are also bound by tradition, insist upon the certainty of their beliefs, and are resistant to radical criticism in ways in which the sciences are not. If traditionally minded believers perceive a clash between what their faith tells them and the findings of modern science, they may well do what the Church authorities did in Galileo’s time. They may attempt to close down the science, insisting that the authority of God’s word trumps that of any ‘merely human’ knowledge. Those of us who value science must take care to ensure this does not happen.

Adapting Historical Knowledge Production to the Classroom

Author: P.V. Kokkotas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9460913490
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The aims of this book are: • to contribute to professional development of those directly involved in science education (science teachers, elementary and secondary science teacher advisors, researchers in science education, etc), • to contribute to the improvement of the quality of science education at all levels of education with the exploitation of elements from History of Science incorporated in science teaching –it is argued that through such approaches the students’ motivation can be raised, their romantic understanding can be developed and consequently their conceptual understanding of science concepts can be improved since these approaches make science more attractive to them– and • to contribute to the debate about science education at the international level in order to find new ways for further inquiry on the issues that the book is dealing with. The book is divided in two parts: The first expounds its philosophical and epistemological framework and the second combines theory and praxis, the theoretical insights with their practical applications.

Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion

Author: Ronald L. Numbers
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674033272
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Ronald Numbers has recruited the leading scholars in this new history of science to puncture the myths, from Galileo's incarceration to Darwin's deathbed conversion to Einstein's belief in a personal God who "didn't play dice with the universe." Each chapter in Galileo Goes to Jail shows how much we have to gain by seeing beyond the myths.

Matter and Mind

Author: Mario Bunge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048192250
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book discusses two of the oldest and hardest problems in both science and philosophy: What is matter?, and What is mind? A reason for tackling both problems in a single book is that two of the most influential views in modern philosophy are that the universe is mental (idealism), and that the everything real is material (materialism). Most of the thinkers who espouse a materialist view of mind have obsolete ideas about matter, whereas those who claim that science supports idealism have not explained how the universe could have existed before humans emerged. Besides, both groups tend to ignore the other levels of existence—chemical, biological, social, and technological. If such levels and the concomitant emergence processes are ignored, the physicalism/spiritualism dilemma remains unsolved, whereas if they are included, the alleged mysteries are shown to be problems that science is treating successfully.

The Galileo Affair

Author: Maurice A. Finocchiaro
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520066625
Format: PDF, ePub
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“A classic introduction to Galileo’s masterpiece.”—William A. Wallace, author of Galileo’s Logic of Discovery and Proof "This is an outstanding contribution to the literature of seventeenth-century science."--Robert Westman, University of California at San Diego "The Galileo Affair should be required reading for everyone who values freedom and fears censorship. The extraordinary virtue of this collection of documents edited by Maurice A. Finocchiaro is that is presents both sides of the dispute."--Alan M. Dershowitz, Harvard Law School "A highly readable sourcebook, the like of which does not exist."--Karl H. Dannenfeldt, History: Reviews of New Books

The Copernican Revolution

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674171039
Format: PDF
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The significance of the plurality of the Copernican Revolution is the main thrust of this undergraduate text

Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems

Author:
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412833783
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Science is continually confronted by new and difficult social and ethical problems. Some of these problems have arisen from the transformation of the academic science of the prewar period into the industrialized science of the present. Traditional theories of science are now widely recognized as obsolete. In Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems (originally published in 1971), Jerome R. Ravetz analyzes the work of science as the creation and investigation of problems. He demonstrates the role of choice and value judgment, and the inevitability of error, in scientific research. Ravetz's new introductory essay is a masterful statement of how our understanding of science has evolved over the last two decades.

Scientific Representation

Author: Bas C. van Fraassen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191613746
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Bas C. van Fraassen presents an original exploration of how we represent the world. Science represents natural phenomena by means of theories, as well as in many concrete ways by such means as pictures, graphs, table-top models, and computer simulations. Scientific Representation begins with an inquiry into the nature of representation in general, drawing on such diverse sources as Plato's dialogues, the development of perspectival drawing in the Renaissance, and the geometric styles of modelling in modern physics. Starting with Mach's and Poincaré's analyses of measurement and the 'problem of coordination', van Fraassen then presents a view of measurement outcomes as representations. With respect to the theories of contemporary science he defends an empiricist structuralist version of the 'picture theory' of science, through an inquiry into the paradoxes that came to light in twentieth-century philosophies of science. Van Fraassen concludes with an analysis of the complex relationship between appearance and reality in the scientific world-picture.