Delinquent Prone Communities

Author: Don Weatherburn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139432061
Format: PDF, ePub
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Despite a century of effort, criminologists do not yet fully understand the relationship between disadvantage and crime. The balance of evidence suggests that economic and social stress increase the risk of involvement in crime by increasing the motivation to offend. But there are a number of empirical anomalies that cannot easily be reconciled with this interpretation of the evidence. Weatherburn and Lind argue that the transmission mechanism linking economic and social stress to crime is not offender motivation but disruption to the parenting process. They put forward an epidemic model of the genesis of delinquent-prone communities and show how this model resolves the empirical anomalies facing conventional interpretations of the disadvantage/crime relationship. This book offers compelling new evidence which will stimulate debate in this area of criminology and will also interest academics, policy makers and practitioners in the field.

Shame Management Through Reintegration

Author: Eliza Ahmed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521003704
Format: PDF
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This 2001 book follows on from John Braithwaite's influential and best-selling Crime, Shame and Reintegration.

Community Criminology

Author: Ralph B. Taylor
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814724183
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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For close to a century, the field of community criminology has examined the causes and consequences of community crime and delinquency rates. Nevertheless, there is still a lot we do not know about the dynamics behind these connections. In this book, Ralph Taylor argues that obstacles to deepening our understanding of community/crime links arise in part because most scholars have overlooked four fundamental concerns: how conceptual frames depend on the geographic units and/or temporal units used; how to establish the meaning of theoretically central ecological empirical indicators; and how to think about the causes and consequences of non-random selection dynamics. The volume organizes these four conceptual challenges using a common meta-analytic framework. The framework pinpoints critical features of and gaps in current theories about communities and crime, connects these concerns to current debates in both criminology and the philosophy of social science, and sketches the types of theory testing needed in the future if we are to grow our understanding of the causes and consequences of community crime rates. Taylor explains that a common meta-theoretical frame provides a grammar for thinking critically about current theories and simultaneously allows presenting these four topics and their connections in a unified manner. The volume provides an orientation to current and past scholarship in this area by describing three distinct but related community crime sequences involving delinquents, adult offenders, and victims. These sequences highlight community justice dynamics thereby raising questions about frequently used crime indicators in this area of research. A groundbreaking work melding past scholarly practices in criminology with the field’s current needs, Community Criminology is an essential work for criminologists.

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology

Author: Gerben J.N. Bruinsma
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190279710
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The study of how the environment, local geography, and physical locations influence crime has a long history that stretches across many research traditions. These include the neighborhood effects approach developed in the 1920s, the criminology of place, and a newer approach that attends to the perception of crime in communities. Aided by new technologies and improved data-reporting in recent decades, research in environmental criminology has developed rapidly within each of these approaches. Yet research in the subfield remains fragmented and competing theories are rarely examined together. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology takes a unique approach and synthesizes the contributions of existing methods to better integrate the subfield as a whole. Gerben J.N. Bruinsma and Shane D. Johnson have assembled a cast of top scholars to provide an in-depth source for understanding how and why physical setting can influence the emergence of crime, affect the environment, and impact individual or group behavior. The contributors address how changes in the environment, global connectivity, and technology provide more criminal opportunities and new ways of committing old crimes. They also explore how crimes committed in countries with distinct cultural practices like China and West Africa might lead to different spatial patterns of crime. This is a state-of-the-art compendium on environmental criminology that reflects the diverse research and theory developed across the western world.

Juvenile Justice

Author: Chris Cunneen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195550504
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Juvenile Justice: Youth and Crime in Australia explores the nature of juvenile crime and the responses of the juvenile justice system to it. The book introduces the main concepts and issues in juvenile justice and provides an overview of both the dynamics of youth crime and the institutions of social control. This new book builds on the earlier successful work Juvenile Justice: An Australian Perspective and presents an analysis of youth and crime in three parts: Part 1: "History, Theory, and Institutions", has chapters on the historical development of juvenile justice, the key theoretical approaches to explaining youth crime, the nature of youth crime, and the institutional responses to juvenile offending. Part 2: "Social dynamics of Juvenile Justice", has chapters on class and community, indigenous young people, gender and juvenile justice, and ethnic minority youth. Part 3: "The State, Punishment, and Community", has chapters on police, the courts and sentencing, detentioncentres and community corrections, youth crime prevention, and restorative justice. This comprehensive and well-crafted book is an indispensable text for students in criminology, criminal justice, sociology, criminal law, social work, and justice studies. It is also an important reference source for youth and community workers, justice department officials, members of the police, social scientitsts, social workers, and young people themselves.

Economic Espionage and Industrial Spying

Author: Hedieh Nasheri
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521543712
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This 2005 book provides an analytic overview and assessment of the changing nature of crime in the burgeoning information society. Bringing together views from leading national and international authorities, Hedieh Nasheri explains the historical and theoretical background surrounding issues of economic espionage, trade secret theft and industrial spying and its impact on society. She looks at legislative history, the progression of electronic and corporate criminal behavior by introducing the concept of information theft and computer crimes, exploring its definition, its identification and its development within criminology. Nasheri presents an assessment of the state of economic espionage activities within a criminological context and based on that assessment addresses areas where additional action is required. The book also draws attention to a variety of issues raised by economic espionage and technological development. It draws on a variety of disciplines, including criminology, criminal justice, sociology, law and society, economics and political science.

Crime Shame and Reintegration

Author: John Braithwaite
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521356688
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book, a contribution to general criminological theory, suggests that the key to why some societies have higher crime rates than others lies in the way different cultures go about the social process of shaming wrongdoers. Shaming can be counterproductive, making crime problems worse. But when shaming is done within a cultural context of respect for the offender, it can be extraordinarily powerful, efficient, and just form of social control.

Policing Gangs in America

Author: Charles M. Katz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139448277
Format: PDF, Docs
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Policing Gangs in America describes the assumptions, issues, problems, and events that characterize, shape, and define the police response to gangs in America today. The focus of this 2006 book is on the gang unit officers themselves and the environment in which they work. A discussion of research, statistical facts, theory, and policy with regard to gangs, gang members, and gang activity is used as a backdrop. The book is broadly focused on describing how gang units respond to community gang problems, and answers such questions as: why do police agencies organize their responses to gangs in certain ways? Who are the people who elect to police gangs? How do they make sense of gang members - individuals who spark fear in most citizens? What are their jobs really like? What characterizes their working environment? How do their responses to the gang problem fit with other policing strategies, such as community policing?

Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour

Author: Terrie E. Moffitt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521010665
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A fresh approach to sex differences in the causes, course and consequences of antisocial behaviour.