Desalination Technology

Author: Joseph Cotruvo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439859841
Format: PDF
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Desalination Technology: Health and Environmental Impacts covers the latest developments in desalination, examining the environmental and public health-related impacts of these technologies. Written by international experts, the text presents specifications for assessing water quality, technical issues associated with desalination technologies, and the chemical aspects of desalinated water and its microbiology. The book also discusses environmental protection issues that assist in the optimization of proposed and existing desalination facilities to ensure that nations and consumers enjoy the benefits of the expanded access to desalinated water. This includes coverage of health and environmental issues such as energy conservation and sustainability as well as protection of delicate coastal ecosystems and groundwater from contamination by surface disposal of concentrates—challenges that must be addressed during the design, construction, and operation of a desalination facility. Development of new and improved desalinization technologies, including major cost reduction trends, have significantly broadened the opportunities to access large quantities of safe water in many parts of the world. And while there are many books available on desalination, this book’s unusual approach blends technical coverage of the latest technologies with coverage of the environmental and public health-related impacts of these technologies, setting it apart from other resources. It provides technical guidance based on the practical expertise of a balanced group of international scientists and engineers.

Desalination Concentrate Management

Author: Bradley Ladewig
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642248528
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book examines five methods used for concentrate management, namely; disposal to surface water, disposal to sewerage, deep well injection, land applications and evaporation ponds. In particular, the book focuses on the design, siting, cost, and environmental impacts of these methods. While these methods are widely practiced in a variety of settings already, there are many limitations that restrict the use of certain disposal options in particular locations.

A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination

Author: Alireza Bazargan
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
ISBN: 8793609949
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although more than 70% of the globe is covered with water, only a small portion is suitable for direct human use, making the scarcity of freshwater one of our planet's most serious challenges. In this context, desalination, defined as "the separation of salts from water," is one of the possible solutions for appeasing our ever-increasing thirst. By drawing upon the expertise of a remarkable team of international authors, this book provides a simple, encompassing, and "multidisciplinary" introduction to desalination. The particular stregnth of this publication is its inclusive yet straightforward nature. In other words, the unique assortment of reader-friendly chapters is designed to cover the topic of desalination as a whole and strike a delicate balance between the technical and non-technical. To this end, the book is divided into five general sections: * The first section presents an overview of water scarcity, followed by a review of integrated water management and the alternatives to desalination. The fundamentals of desalination are also provided, including simple water chemistry. * The second section covers conventional desalination technologies, including thermal and membrane processes. The topics of pre- and post- treatment are given due credit, as all desalination plants are more or less reliant on them. * The third section reviews the history of how desalination technologies originated, including a review of today's R&D activities and cutting edge research. The topic of membrane manufacturing is also covered. * Section four is concerned with energy and environmental issues, including the application of renewable and nuclear energy, energy minimization, brine management, and environmental impacts. * Finally, section five covers the social and commercial issues, ranging from rural desalination to politics. Desalination costs and economic feasibility are discussed as well as issues in business development and future market prospects.

Development of an Environmental Impact Assessment and Decision Support System for Seawater Desalination Plants

Author: Sabine Latteman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203093240
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Seawater desalination is a coastal-based industry. The growing number of desalination plants worldwide and the increasing size of single facilities emphasises the need for greener desalination technologies and more sustainable desalination projects. Two complementing approaches are the development and implementation of best available technology (BAT) standards and best practice guidelines for environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies. While BAT is a technology-based approach, which favours state of the art technologies that reduce resource consumption and waste emissions, EIA aims at minimizing impacts at a site- and project-specific level through environmental monitoring, evaluation of impacts, and mitigation where necessary. This book contains a comprehensive evaluation and synthesis of the potential environmental impacts of desalination plants, with emphasis on the marine environment and aspects of energy use, followed by the development of strategies for impact mitigating. A concept for BAT for seawater desalination technologies is proposed, in combination with a methodological approach for the EIA of desalination projects. The scope of the EIA studies are outlined, including environmental monitoring, toxicity and hydrodynamic modelling studies, and the usefulness of multi-criteria analysis as a decision support tool for EIAs is explored and used to compare different intake and pretreatment options for seawater reverse osmosis plants.

Advances in Water Desalination

Author: Noam Lior
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118347722
Format: PDF
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Desalination is a dynamically growing field with more research, more engineering, more applications, more countries, more people, and with more training programs. This book provides high quality invited reviews on progress in various aspects of the desalination field. It features comprehensive coverage of desalination science, technology, economics, markets, energy considerations, environmental impact, and more. It is a key guide for professionals and researchers in water desalination and related areas including chemical, mechanical, and civil engineers, chemists, materials scientists, manufacturers of desalination membranes, water reuse engineers, and water authorities, as well as students in these fields.

Renewable Energy Powered Desalination Handbook

Author: Gnaneswar Gude
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128154284
Format: PDF, Docs
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Renewable Energy Powered Desalination Handbook: Applications and Thermodynamics offers a practical handbook on the use of renewable technologies to produce freshwater using sustainable methods. Sections cover the different renewable technologies currently used in the field, including solar, wind, geothermal and nuclear desalination. This coverage is followed by an equally important clear and rigorous discussion of energy recovery and the thermodynamics of desalination processes. While seawater desalination can provide a climate-independent source of drinking water, the process is energy-intensive and environmentally damaging. This book provides readers with the latest methods, processes, and technologies available for utilizing renewable energy applications as a valuable technology. Desalination based on the use of renewable energy sources can provide a sustainable way to produce fresh water. It is expected to become economically attractive as the costs of renewable technologies continue to decline and the prices of fossil fuels continue to increase. Covers renewable energy sources, such as nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind powered desalination and energy storage and optimization Includes energy recovery schemes, optimization and process controls Elaborates on the principles of thermodynamics and second law efficiencies to improve process performance, including solar desalination Explains global applicability of solar, wind, geothermal and nuclear energy sources with case studies Discusses renewable energy-desalinated water optimization schemes for island communities

Sustainable Desalination Handbook

Author: Gnaneswar Gude
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128094966
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Sustainable Desalination Handbook: Plant Selection, Design and Implementation provides the comprehensive knowledge base required for efficient and sustainable process design for existing and new desalination plants around the world. This valuable resource for understanding and utilizing the most recent developments in desalination technologies and methods addresses the necessary components, including process design and implementation, operational strategies, and novel discoveries that minimize environmental impacts. In addition, the book features essential illustrations, operational details, issues and potential solutions and sustainable management strategies for present and future desalination plants. Explains plant design and process selection criteria for each desalination process Presents international regulations and permitting for intake and discharge locations, design and disposal Provides energy recovery schemes, optimization and process controls Covers renewable energy sources, such as nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind powered desalination, energy storage and optimization Includes case studies of recent desalination projects and process design

Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Desalination Handbook

Author: Gnaneswar Gude
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128167122
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Desalination Handbook provides professionals and researchers with the latest treatment activities in the advancement of desalination technology. The book enables municipalities and private companies to custom-design sustainable desalination plants that will minimize discharge, energy costs and environmental footprint. Individual case studies are included to illustrate the benefits and drawback of each technique. Sections discuss a multitude of recently developed, advanced processes, along with notable advances made in existing technologies. These processes include adsorption, forward osmosis, humidification and dehumidification, membrane distillation, pervaporation and spray type thermal processes. In addition, theoretical membrane materials, such as nanocomposite and carbon nanotube membranes are also explored. Other chapters cover the desalination of shale gas, produced water, forward osmosis for agriculture, desalination for crop irrigation, and seawater for sustainable agriculture. International in its coverage, the chapters of this handbook are contributed by leading authors and researchers in all relevant fields. Expertly explains recent advances in sustainable desalination technology, including nanocomposite membranes, carbon nanotube membranes, forward reverse osmosis and desalination by pervaporation Provides state-of-the-art techniques for minimizing system discharge, energy cost and environmental footprint Includes individual case studies to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of each technique Discusses techniques for the custom-design of sustainable desalination plants for municipalities, private companies and industrial operations

Development of an Environmental Impact Assessment and Decision Support System for Seawater Desalination Plants

Author: Sabine Latteman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203093240
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Seawater desalination is a coastal-based industry. The growing number of desalination plants worldwide and the increasing size of single facilities emphasises the need for greener desalination technologies and more sustainable desalination projects. Two complementing approaches are the development and implementation of best available technology (BAT) standards and best practice guidelines for environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies. While BAT is a technology-based approach, which favours state of the art technologies that reduce resource consumption and waste emissions, EIA aims at minimizing impacts at a site- and project-specific level through environmental monitoring, evaluation of impacts, and mitigation where necessary. This book contains a comprehensive evaluation and synthesis of the potential environmental impacts of desalination plants, with emphasis on the marine environment and aspects of energy use, followed by the development of strategies for impact mitigating. A concept for BAT for seawater desalination technologies is proposed, in combination with a methodological approach for the EIA of desalination projects. The scope of the EIA studies are outlined, including environmental monitoring, toxicity and hydrodynamic modelling studies, and the usefulness of multi-criteria analysis as a decision support tool for EIAs is explored and used to compare different intake and pretreatment options for seawater reverse osmosis plants.

Membrane based Desalination

Author: Enrico Drioli
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1843393212
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Reverse Osmosis is the dominant technology in water desalination. However, some critical issues remain open: improvement of water quality, enhancement of the recovery factor, reduction of the unit water cost, minimizing the brine disposal impact. This book aims to solve these problems with an innovative approach based on the integration of different membrane operations in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages. Membrane-Based Desalination: An Integrated Approach (acronym MEDINA) has been a three years project funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program. The project team has developed a work programme aiming to improve the current design and operation practices of membrane systems used for water desalination, trying to solve or, at least, to decrease the critical issues of sea and brackish water desalination systems. In the book, the main results achieved in the nine Work Packages constituting the project will be described, and dismissed by the leaders of the various WPs. The following areas are explored in the book: -the development of advanced analytical methods for feed water characterization, appropriate fouling indicators and prediction tools, procedures and protocols at full-scale desalination facilities; -the identification of optimal seawater pre-treatment strategies by designing advanced hybrid membrane processes (submerged hollow fibre filtration/reaction, adsorption/ion exchange/ozonation) and comparison with conventional methods; -the optimisation of RO membrane module configuration, cleaning strategies, reduction of scaling potential by NF; -the development of strategies aiming to approach the concept of Zero Liquid Discharge (increasing the water recovery factor up to 950/0 by using Membrane Distillation - MD; bringing concentrates to solids by Membrane Crystallization or Wind Intensified Enhanced Evaporation) and to reduce the brine disposal environmental impact and cost; -increase the sustainability of desalination process by reducing energy consumption(evaluation of MD, demonstration of a new energy recovery device for SWRO installations)and use of renewable energy (wind and solar).