Development and Application of Biomarkers

Author: Roger L. Lundblad
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439819807
Format: PDF, Kindle
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First introduced to biomedical research in 1980, the term biomarker has taken on a life of its own in recent years and has come to mean a number of things. In biomedical science, biomarker has evolved to most commonly mean a characteristic that can be used either as a diagnostic or a prognostic, but most significantly as a screening indicator for pathologies that tend to be somewhat silent prior to overt clinical display. Applying scientific rigor, as well as a disciplined approach to nomenclature, Roger Lundblad’s Development and Application of Biomarkers rationalizes the current enthusiasm for biomarkers with the use of well-established clinical laboratory analytes in clinical medicine. Highly respected for his work as both a classical protein scientist and as a pioneer in proteomics, Dr. Lundblad catalogs various biomarkers recognized in clinical medicine and, where possible, matches the expectations for advances in screening technologies with the realities of statistical analysis. More specifically, this important reference: Details an extensive list of biomarkers for various stages of a number of cancer types including ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancer Looks at how proteomics is used for the discovery and validation of biomarkers Explores the use of microarray technology, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and computational bioinformatic approaches for the discovery and use of biomarkers Examines the use of cells and cell fragments as more complex biomarkers Organizes a host of significant biomarkers and essential research by type and use in a series of readily accessible tables Throughout this volume, Dr. Lundblad encourages consideration of biomarkers more as a concept than as laboratory analytes, emphasizing the relation between the discovery of a biomarker and the biology underlying its production. Ultimately, it is a thorough understanding of that underlying biology that will lead to the development of assays that are robust and reproducible, as well as clinically significant.

Immunosensing for Detection of Protein Biomarkers

Author: Huangxian Ju
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0081020007
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Immunosensing for Detection of Protein Biomarkers not only introduces the principles, methods, and classification of immunoassay, but also presents the latest achievements in areas such as electrochemical immunosensors, nanoprobe-based immunoassay, chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, multianalyte immunoassay, optical imaging for immunoassay, signal amplification for immunoassay, and so on. In recent years, immunosensing and immunoassay methods have attracted considerable interest due to their applications in different fields, particularly clinical diagnosis. Although a large number of academic papers in immunosensing and immunoassay have been published in different journals recently, it is still a difficult and time-consuming task for researchers, especially those new to the area, to understand the principles, methods, and research progress of immunosensing. Based on the research experience of the authors and their research groups, this book offers readers with new research ideas to develop immunosensing methodology. As a monograph, it offers deeper and more complete coverage than review papers, which only report certain aspects of progress. Grounded in the research experience of Professor Ju’s research group, the book focuses on immunosensing for detection of protein biomarkers, summarizing understanding, research, and practice on immunosensing methodology in detection of protein biomarkers. Presents the latest research and thinking on immunosensing for detection of protein biomarkers Offers current techniques, and looks to the development of new methodologies Offers the latest developments in various aspects of immunosensing, including electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, multianalyte immunoassay, optical imaging immunoassay, and signal amplification immunoassay Offers readers new ideas to research and develop immunosensing methodologies for the future

Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery

Author: Haleem J Issaq
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123947952
Format: PDF, Docs
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Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery demonstrates how to leverage biomarkers to improve accuracy and reduce errors in research. Disease biomarker discovery is one of the most vibrant and important areas of research today, as the identification of reliable biomarkers has an enormous impact on disease diagnosis, selection of treatment regimens, and therapeutic monitoring. Various techniques are used in the biomarker discovery process, including techniques used in proteomics, the study of the proteins that make up an organism, and metabolomics, the study of chemical fingerprints created from cellular processes. Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery is the only publication that covers techniques from both proteomics and metabolomics and includes all steps involved in biomarker discovery, from study design to study execution. The book describes methods, and presents a standard operating procedure for sample selection, preparation, and storage, as well as data analysis and modeling. This new standard effectively eliminates the differing methodologies used in studies and creates a unified approach. Readers will learn the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques discussed, as well as potential difficulties inherent to all steps in the biomarker discovery process. A vital resource for biochemists, biologists, analytical chemists, bioanalytical chemists, clinical and medical technicians, researchers in pharmaceuticals, and graduate students, Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery provides the information needed to reduce clinical error in the execution of research. Describes the use of biomarkers to reduce clinical errors in research Includes techniques from a range of biomarker discoveries Covers all steps involved in biomarker discovery, from study design to study execution

Biomarker Tests for Molecularly Targeted Therapies

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309381347
Format: PDF, ePub
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Every patient is unique, and the evolving field of precision medicine aims to ensure the delivery of the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. In an era of rapid advances in biomedicine and enhanced understanding of the genetic basis of disease, health care providers increasingly have access to advanced technologies that may identify molecular variations specific to an individual patient, which subsequently can be targeted for treatment. Known as biomarker tests for molecularly targeted therapies, these complex tests have the potential to enable the selection of the most beneficial treatment (and also to identify treatments that may be harmful or ineffective) for the molecular underpinnings of an individual patient’s disease. Such tests are key to unlocking the promise of precision medicine. Biomarker tests for molecularly targeted therapies represent a crucial area of focus for developing methods that could later be applicable to other areas of precision medicine. The appropriate regulatory oversight of these tests is required to ensure that they are accurate, reliable, properly validated, and appropriately implemented in clinical practice. Moreover, common evidentiary standards for assessing the beneficial impact of biomarker-guided therapy selection on patient outcomes, as well as the effective collection and sharing of information related to those outcomes, are urgently needed to better inform clinical decision making. Biomarker Tests of Molecularly Targeted Therapies examines opportunities for and challenges to the use of biomarker tests to select optimal therapy and offers recommendations to accelerate progress in this field. This report explores regulatory issues, reimbursement issues, and clinical practice issues related to the clinical development and use of biomarker tests for targeting therapies to patients. Properly validated, appropriately implemented biomarker tests hold the potential to enhance patient care and improve outcomes, and therefore addressing the challenges facing such tests is critical.

Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry

Author: Karoly Vekey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080554652
Format: PDF, ePub
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Mass spectrometry is fast becoming an indispensable field for medical professionals. The mass spectrometric analysis of metabolites and proteins promises to revolutionize medical research and clinical diagnostics. As this technology rapidly enters the medical field, practicing professionals and students need to prepare to take full advantage of its capabilities. Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry addresses the key issues in the medical applications of mass spectrometry at the level appropriate for the intended readership. It will go a long way to help the utilization of mass spectrometry in medicine. The book comprises five parts. A general overview is followed by a description of the basic sampling and separation methods in analytical chemistry. In the second part a solid foundation in mass spectrometry and modern techniques of data analysis is presented. The third part explains how mass spectrometry is used in exploring various classes of biomolecules, including proteins and lipids. In the fourth section mass spectrometry is introduced as a diagnostic tool in clinical treatment, infectious pathogen research, neonatal diagnostics, cancer, brain and allergy research, as well as in various fields of medicine: cardiology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatric diseases, hemato-oncology, urologic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, gynecology and pediatrics. The fifth part covers emerging applications in biomarker discovery and in mass spectrometric imaging. * Provides a broad look at how the medical field is benefiting from advances in mass spectrometry. * Guides the reader from basic principles and methods to cutting edge applications. * There is NO comparable book on the market to fill this fast growing field.

Accelerating the Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety

Author: Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131243
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Biomarkers can be defined as indicators of any biologic state, and they are central to the future of medicine. As the cost of developing drugs has risen in recent years, reducing the number of new drugs approved for use, biomarker development may be a way to cut costs, enhance safety, and provide a more focused and rational pathway to drug development. On October 24, 2008, the IOM's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held "Assessing and Accelerating Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety," a one-day workshop, summarized in this volume, on the value of biomarkers in helping to determine drug safety during development.

Biomarkers in Drug Development

Author: Michael R. Bleavins
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118210425
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Discover how biomarkers can boost the success rate of drug development efforts As pharmaceutical companies struggle to improve the success rate and cost-effectiveness of the drug development process, biomarkers have emerged as a valuable tool. This book synthesizes and reviews the latest efforts to identify, develop, and integrate biomarkers as a key strategy in translational medicine and the drug development process. Filled with case studies, the book demonstrates how biomarkers can improve drug development timelines, lower costs, facilitate better compound selection, reduce late-stage attrition, and open the door to personalized medicine. Biomarkers in Drug Development is divided into eight parts: Part One offers an overview of biomarkers and their role in drug development. Part Two highlights important technologies to help researchers identify new biomarkers. Part Three examines the characterization and validation process for both drugs and diagnostics, and provides practical advice on appropriate statistical methods to ensure that biomarkers fulfill their intended purpose. Parts Four through Six examine the application of biomarkers in discovery, preclinical safety assessment, clinical trials, and translational medicine. Part Seven focuses on lessons learned and the practical aspects of implementing biomarkers in drug development programs. Part Eight explores future trends and issues, including data integration, personalized medicine, and ethical concerns. Each of the thirty-eight chapters was contributed by one or more leading experts, including scientists from biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms, academia, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Their contributions offer pharmaceutical and clinical researchers the most up-to-date understanding of the strategies used for and applications of biomarkers in drug development.

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers

Author: Amitava Dasgupta
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128004096
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Alcohol and Its Biomarkers: Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination is a concise guide to all currently known alcohol biomarkers, their clinical application, and the laboratory methods used to detect them. Pathologists can use this resource to understand the limitations and cost factors associated with each method for determining certain alcohol biomarkers. In addition, interferences in these determinations are discussed, so that clinicians can understand the causes of falsely elevated biomarkers and pathologists and laboratory scientists can potentially eliminate them. The book focuses on the analytical methods used to detect alcohol in blood and urine, the limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods, and the differences between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement. Chapters also cover cutting-edge alcohol biomarkers for potential use. Focuses on the analytical methods used for detecting alcohol in blood and urine along with the pitfalls and limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods Explains the difference between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement Includes a brief overview of the benefits of consuming alcohol in moderation and the hazards of heavy drinking

Proteomics in Food Science

Author: Michelle Lisa Colgrave
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128040572
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Proteomics in Food Science: From Farm to Fork is a solid reference providing concepts and practical applications of proteomics for those in various disciplines of food science. The book covers a range of methods for elucidating the identity or composition of specific proteins in foods or cells related to food science, from spoilage organisms, to edible components. A variety of analytical platforms are described, ranging from the usage of simple electrophoresis, to more sophisticated mass spectrometry and bio-informatic platforms. The book is designed for food scientists, technologists, food industry workers, microbiologists, and public health workers, and can also be a valuable reference book for students. Includes a variety of analytical platforms, ranging from simple electrophoresis to more sophisticated mass spectrometry and bio-informatic platforms Presents analytical techniques for each food domain, including beverages, meats, dairy and eggs, fruit, fish/seafood, cereals, nuts, and grains that range from sample collection, proportion, and storage analysis Provides applications of proteomics in hot topics area of food safety, including food spoilage, pathogenic organisms, and allergens Covers major pathogens of concern e.g., Salmonella and applications to animal husbandry