Developmental Cognitive Science Goes to School

Author: Nancy L. Stein
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136871225
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book addresses core issues related to school learning and the use of developmental/cognitive science models to improve school-based instruction. The contributors comprise a veritable "who's who" of leading researchers and scientists who are broadly trained in developmental psychology, cognitive science, economics, sociology, statistics, and physical science, and who are using basic learning theories from their respective disciplines to create better learning environments in school settings. Developmental Cognitive Science Goes to School: presents evidence-based studies that describe models of complex learning within specific subject-area disciplines focuses on domain knowledge and how this knowledge is structured in different domains across the curriculum gives critical attention to the topic of the ability to overcome errors and misconceptions addresses models that should be used to begin instruction for populations of children who normally fail at schooling. This is a must-read volume for all researchers, students, and professionals interested in evidence-based educational practices and issues related to domain-specific teaching and learning.

Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Author: Charles Alexander Nelson
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262140737
Format: PDF
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Winner of the 2001 Professional/Scholarly Publishing Annual Awards Competition presented by the Association of American Publishers, Inc. in the category of Single Volume Reference: Science. The publication of this handbook testifies to the rapid growth of developmental cognitive neuroscience as a distinct field. Brain imaging and recording technologies, along with well-defined behavioral tasks—the essential methodological tools of cognitive neuroscience—are now being used to study development. Whereas earlier methodologies allowed scientists to study only adult brains, recent technological advances have yielded methods that can be safely used to study structure-function relations and their development in children's brains. These new techniques combined with more refined cognitive models account for the progress and heightened activity in developmental cognitive neuroscience research. The handbook contains forty-one original contributions exploring basic aspects of neural development, sensory and sensorimotor systems, language, cognition, and emotion. Aided by recent results in neurobiology establishing that the human brain remains malleable and plastic throughout much of the lifespan, the contributors also explore the implications of lifelong neural plasticity for brain and behavioral development. This book is also available online as part of MIT CogNet, The Cognitive and Brain Sciences Community online.

The Cognitive Science of Science

Author: Paul Thagard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262300974
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Many disciplines, including philosophy, history, and sociology, have attempted to make sense of how science works. In this book, Paul Thagard examines scientific development from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science. Cognitive science combines insights from researchers in many fields: philosophers analyze historical cases, psychologists carry out behavioral experiments, neuroscientists perform brain scans, and computer modelers write programs that simulate thought processes. Thagard develops cognitive perspectives on the nature of explanation, mental models, theory choice, and resistance to scientific change, considering disbelief in climate change as a case study. He presents a series of studies that describe the psychological and neural processes that have led to breakthroughs in science, medicine, and technology. He shows how discoveries of new theories and explanations lead to conceptual change, with examples from biology, psychology, and medicine. Finally, he shows how the cognitive science of science can integrate descriptive and normative concerns; and he considers the neural underpinnings of certain scientific concepts.

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Author: Mark H. Johnson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118938100
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 4th Edition, is a revised and updated edition of the landmark text focusing on the development of brain and behaviour during infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Offers a comprehensive introduction to all issues relating to the nature of brain-behaviour relationships and development New or greatly expanded coverage of topics such as epigenetics and gene expression, cell migration and stem cells, sleep and learning/memory, socioeconomic status and development of prefrontal cortex function Includes a new chapter on educational neuroscience, featuring the latest findings on the application of cognitive neuroscience methods in school-age educational contexts Includes a variety of student-friendly features such as chapter-end discussion, practical applications of basic research, and material on recent technological breakthroughs

Cognitive Science and the Social

Author: Stephen P. Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351180509
Format: PDF, ePub
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The rise of cognitive neuroscience is the most important scientific and intellectual development of the last thirty years. Findings pour forth, and major initiatives for brain research continue. The social sciences have responded to this development slowly--for good reasons. The implications of particular controversial findings, such as the discovery of mirror neurons, have been ambiguous, controversial within neuroscience itself, and difficult to integrate with conventional social science. Yet many of these findings, such as those of experimental neuro-economics, pose very direct challenges to standard social science. At the same time, however, the known facts of social science, for example about linguistic and moral diversity, pose a significant challenge to standard neuroscience approaches, which tend to focus on "universal" aspects of human and animal cognition. A serious encounter between cognitive neuroscience and social science is likely to be challenging, and transformative, for both parties. Although a literature has developed on proposals to integrate neuroscience and social science, these proposals go in divergent directions. None of them has a developed conception of social life. This book surveys these issues, introduces the basic alternative conceptions both of the mental world and the social world, and show how, with sufficient modification, they can be fit together in plausible ways. The book is not a "new theory " of anything, but rather an exploration of the critical issues that relate to the social aspects of cognition which expands the topic from the social neuroscience of immediate interpersonal interaction to the whole range of places where social variation interacts with the cognitive. The focus is on the conceptual problems produced by any attempt to take these issues seriously, and also on the new resources and considerations relevant to doing so. But it is also on the need for a revision of social theoretical concepts in order to utilize these resources. The book points to some conclusions, especially about how the process of what was known as socialization needs to be understood in cognitive science friendly terms. But there is no attempt to resolve the underlying issues within cognitive science, which will doubtless persist.

Beyond Modularity

Author: Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262611145
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Taking a stand midway between Piaget's constructivism and Fodor's nativism, Annette Karmiloff-Smith offers an exciting new theory of developmental change that embraces both approaches. She shows how each can enrich the other and how both are necessary to a fundamental theory of human cognition. Karmiloff-Smith shifts the focus from what cognitive science can offer the study of development to what a developmental perspective can offer cognitive science. In Beyond Modularity she treats cognitive development as a serious theoretical tool, presenting a coherent portrait of the flexibility and creativity of the human mind as it develops from infancy to middle childhood. Language, physics, mathematics, commonsense psychology, drawing, and writing are explored in terms of the relationship between the innate capacities of the human mind and subsequent representational change which allows for such flexibility and creativity. Karmiloff-Smith also takes up the issue of the extent to which development involves domain-specific versus domain-general processes. She concludes with discussions of nativism and domain specificity in relation to Piagetian theory and connectionism, and shows how a developmental perspective can pinpoint what is missing from connectionist models of the mind. Formerly a research collaborator of Piaget and Inhelder at Geneva University, Annette Karmiloff-Smith is Senior Research Scientist with Special Appointment at the MRC Cognitive Development Unit in London, and Professor of Psychology at University College, London.

Schools for Thought

Author: John T. Bruer
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262521963
Format: PDF, Mobi
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If we want to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for all children, wemust start applying what we know about mental functioning -- how children think, learn, and rememberin our schools. We must apply cognitive science in the classroom. Schools for Thoughtprovides a straightforward, general introduction to cognitive research and illustrates itsimportance for educational change. Using classroom examples, Bruer shows howapplying cognitive research can dramatically improve students' transitions from lower-level roteskills to advanced proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. Cognitive research, hepoints out, is also beginning to suggest how we might better motivate students, design moreeffective tools for assessing them, and improve the training of teachers. He concludes with achapter on how effective school reform demands that we expand our understanding of teaching andlearning and that we think about education in new ways. Debates and discussions about the reform ofAmerican education suffer from a lack of appreciation of the complexity of learning and from a lackof understanding about the knowledge base that is available for the improvement of educationalpractice. Politicians, business leaders, and even many school superintendents, principals, andteachers think that educational problems can be solved by changing school management structures orby creating a market in educational services. Bruer argues that improvement depends instead onchanging student-teacher interactions. It is these changes, guided by cognitive research, that willcreate more effective classroom environments. A BradfordBook

Mind Body World

Author: Michael R. W. Dawson
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
ISBN: 1927356172
Format: PDF, Docs
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Cognitive science arose in the 1950s when it became apparent that a number of disciplines, including psychology, computer science, linguistics, and philosophy, were fragmenting. Perhaps owing to the field's immediate origins in cybernetics, as well as to the foundational assumption that cognition is information processing, cognitive science initially seemed more unified than psychology. However, as a result of differing interpretations of the foundational assumption and dramatically divergent views of the meaning of the term information processing, three separate schools emerged: classical cognitive science, connectionist cognitive science, and embodied cognitive science. Examples, cases, and research findings taken from the wide range of phenomena studied by cognitive scientists effectively explain and explore the relationship among the three perspectives. Intended to introduce both graduate and senior undergraduate students to the foundations of cognitive science, Mind, Body, World addresses a number of questions currently being asked by those practicing in the field: What are the core assumptions of the three different schools? What are the relationships between these different sets of core assumptions? Is there only one cognitive science, or are there many different cognitive sciences? Giving the schools equal treatment and displaying a broad and deep understanding of the field, Dawson highlights the fundamental tensions and lines of fragmentation that exist among the schools and provides a refreshing and unifying framework for students of cognitive science.Michael R. W. Dawson is a professor of psychology at the University of Alberta. He is the author of numerous scientific papers as well as the books Understanding Cognitive Science (1998), Minds and Machines (2004), Connectionism: A Hands-on Approach (2005), and From Bricks to Brains: The Embodied Cognitive Science of LEGO Robots (2010).

Big Data in Cognitive Science

Author: Michael N. Jones
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1315413566
Format: PDF, Kindle
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While laboratory research is the backbone of collecting experimental data in cognitive science, a rapidly increasing amount of research is now capitalizing on large-scale and real-world digital data. Each piece of data is a trace of human behavior and offers us a potential clue to understanding basic cognitive principles. However, we have to be able to put the pieces together in a reasonable way, which necessitates both advances in our theoretical models and development of new methodological techniques. The primary goal of this volume is to present cutting-edge examples of mining large-scale and naturalistic data to discover important principles of cognition and evaluate theories that would not be possible without such a scale. This book also has a mission to stimulate cognitive scientists to consider new ways to harness big data in order to enhance our understanding of fundamental cognitive processes. Finally, this book aims to warn of the potential pitfalls of using, or being over-reliant on, big data and to show how big data can work alongside traditional, rigorously gathered experimental data rather than simply supersede it. In sum, this groundbreaking volume presents cognitive scientists and those in related fields with an exciting, detailed, stimulating, and realistic introduction to big data – and to show how it may greatly advance our understanding of the principles of human memory, perception, categorization, decision-making, language, problem-solving, and representation.

Neuroconstructivism How the brain constructs cognition

Author: Denis Mareschal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198529902
Format: PDF, Mobi
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What are the processes, from conception to adulthood, that enable a single cell to grow into a sentient adult? The processes that occur along the way are so complex that any attempt to understand development necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach, integrating data from cognitive studies, computational work, and neuroimaging - an approach till now seldom taken in the study of child development. Neuroconstructivism is a major new 2 volume publication that seeks to redress this balance, presenting an integrative new framework for considering development. In the first volume, the authors review up-to-to date findings from neurobiology, brain imaging, child development, computer and robotic modelling to consider why children's thinking develops the way it does. They propose a new synthesis of development that is based on 5 key principles found to operate at many levels of descriptions. They use these principles to explain what causes a number of key developmental phenomena,including infants' interacting with objects, early social cognitive interactions, and the causes of dyslexia. The "neuroconstructivist" framework also shows how developmental disorders do not arise from selective damage to the normal cognitive system, but instead arise from atypical constraints. How these principles work is illustrated in several case studies ranging from perceptual to social and reading development. Finally, the authors use neuroimaging, behavioural analyses, computational simulations and robotic models to provide a way of understanding the mechanisms and processes that cause development to occur.