DNA Helicases and DNA Motor Proteins

Author: Maria Spies
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461450373
Format: PDF, ePub
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In recent years, a number of groundbreaking structural and mechanistic studies deepened our understanding of helicase mechanisms and established new approaches for their analyses. Many fundamental mechanistic questions ranging from the mechanism of force generation, mechanochemical coupling to distinct mechanisms by which the same enzyme translocates on DNA removing obstacles, unwinds DNA and/or remodels nucleoprotein complexes, however, remain to be answered. It is even less understood how the helicase motors are incorporated into a wide range of genome maintenance and repair machines. The field has reached a stage when the studies of molecular mechanisms and basic biology of helicases can and shall be integrated with the studies of development, cancer and longevity. The objective of this book is to provide the first systematic overview of structure, function and regulation of DNA helicases and related molecular motors. By integrating the knowledge obtained through the diverse technical approaches ranging from single-molecule biophysics to cellular and molecular biological studies the editors aim to provide a unified view on how helicases function in the cell, are regulated in response to different cellular stresses and are integrated into large macromolecular assemblies to form a complex and adaptive living system.

Epigenetics and Neuroendocrinology

Author: Dietmar Spengler
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319244930
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The field of neuroendocrinology has extended from the initial interest in the hypothalamic control of pituitary secretion to embrace multiple reciprocal interactions between the central nervous system and endocrine systems in the coordination of homeostasis and various physiological responses from adaptation to disease. Most recently, epigenetic mechanisms were recognized for their role in the development of the neuroendocrine axes as well as in the mediation of gene-environment interactions in stress-related psychiatry disorders.

GAPDH Biological Properties and Diversity

Author: Norbert W. Seidler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400747160
Format: PDF, ePub
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The book represents a comprehensive review and synthesis of the biomedical literature that spans over a half-century on a single protein called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (or, GAPDH). Due to the protein’s involvement in a vast array of cellular activities, GAPDH is of interest to the cell biologist, immunologist, virologist, biochemist etc. The protein has a significant role in fertility, cancer and neurodegeneration, suggesting that this book can be a vital resource for drug development. GAPDH function may provide insight into anesthesia. Furthermore, GAPDH is highly conserved meaning that the protein found in microorganisms, such as pathogens, remained relatively unchanged in evolution. Pathogens use GAPDH as a virulence factor, offering a unique challenge in developing anti-microbial agents that target this protein. To the evolutionary biologist, a book on the multi-functionality of GAPDH provides a focal point for a cogent discussion on the very origin of life.

Genome Integrity

Author: Dirk Lankenau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540375317
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is the first book to give a full overview on genome integrity in different species. From microorganisms to humans, this volume provides an interdisciplinary overview of how genome integrity is maintained. Written by an international panel of experts, the book addresses the connection between genome integrity and human disease.

Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics

Author: Thomas Jue
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1597453978
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the first volume, Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, the authors lay down a foundation for biophysics study. Rajiv Singh opens the book by pointing to the central importance of “Mathematical Methods in Biophysics”. William Fink follows with a discussion on “Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods”. Together, these two chapters establish some of the principles of mathematical physics underlying many biophysics techniques. Because computer modeling forms an intricate part of biophysics research, Subhadip Raychaudhuri and colleagues introduce the use of computer modeling in “Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes”. Yin Yeh and coworkers bring to the reader’s attention the physical basis underlying the common use of fluorescence spectroscopy in biomedical research in their chapter “Fluorescence Spectroscopy”. Electrophysiologists have also applied biophysics techniques in the study of membrane proteins, and Tsung-Yu Chen et al. explore stochastic processes of ion transport in their “Electrophysiological Measurements of Membrane Proteins”. Michael Saxton takes up a key biophysics question about particle distribution and behavior in systems with spatial or temporal inhomogeneity in his chapter “Single–Particle Tracking”. Finally, in “NMR Measurement of Biomolecule Diffusion”, Thomas Jue explains how magnetic resonance techniques can map biomolecule diffusion in the cell to a theory of respiratory control. This book thus launches the Handbook of Modern Biophysics series and sets up for the reader some of the fundamental concepts underpinning the biophysics issues to be presented in future volumes.

MicroRNAs

Author: Krishnarao Appasani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521865980
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This wide-ranging reference work will be an invaluable resource for all those wishing to use miRNA techniques in their own research, both in academia and industry. From their discovery, functions and detection to their role in disease biology, this volume uniquely integrates basic miRNA biology with future applications.

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

Author: David L. Nelson
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 071677108X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Authors Dave Nelson and Mike Cox combine the best of the laboratory and best of the classroom, introducing exciting new developments while communicating basic principles of biochemistry.

Systems Biology of Metabolic and Signaling Networks

Author: Miguel A. Aon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642385052
Format: PDF
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Systems Biology represents a new paradigm aiming at a whole-organism-level understanding of biological phenomena, emphasizing interconnections and functional interrelationships rather than component parts. The study of network properties, and how they control and regulate behavior from the cellular to organism level, constitutes a main focus of Systems Biology. This book addresses from a novel perspective a major unsolved biological problem: understanding how a cell works and what goes wrong in pathology. The task undertaken by the authors is in equal parts conceptual and methodological, integrative and analytical, experimental and theoretical, qualitative and quantitative, didactic and comprehensive. Essentially, they unravel the spatio-temporal unfolding of interacting mass-energy and information networks at the cellular and organ levels, as well as its modulation through activation or repression by signaling networks to produce a certain phenotype or (patho)physiological response. Starting with the historical roots, in thirteen chapters this work explores the Systems Biology of signaling networks, cellular structures and fluxes, organ and microorganism functions. In doing so, it establishes the basis of a 21st century approach to biological complexity.

Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity

Author: Uday Kishore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441909015
Format: PDF, ePub
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Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.

Inflammation Advancing Age and Nutrition

Author: Irfan Rahman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123978076
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book provides a comprehensive overview to understanding the integrated impact of the concepts of cellular and molecular aspects, models, environmental factors, and lifestyle involved in premature aging. Additionally, it examines how functional food, dietary nutraceuticals or pharmacological compounds can reverse inflammation and premature aging based on personalized medicine. This book is a valuable resource for health professionals, scientists and researchers, nutritionists, health practitioners, students and for all those who wish to broaden their knowledge in the allied field. Includes models of aging, including worm, mouse and human Explores the relationship of inflammation with diseases, including ocular health, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and muscle health Encompasses a variety of lifestyle impacts, including diet, exercise and nutrition Includes suggested nutritional interventions