DNA Helicases and DNA Motor Proteins

Author: Maria Spies
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461450373
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In recent years, a number of groundbreaking structural and mechanistic studies deepened our understanding of helicase mechanisms and established new approaches for their analyses. Many fundamental mechanistic questions ranging from the mechanism of force generation, mechanochemical coupling to distinct mechanisms by which the same enzyme translocates on DNA removing obstacles, unwinds DNA and/or remodels nucleoprotein complexes, however, remain to be answered. It is even less understood how the helicase motors are incorporated into a wide range of genome maintenance and repair machines. The field has reached a stage when the studies of molecular mechanisms and basic biology of helicases can and shall be integrated with the studies of development, cancer and longevity. The objective of this book is to provide the first systematic overview of structure, function and regulation of DNA helicases and related molecular motors. By integrating the knowledge obtained through the diverse technical approaches ranging from single-molecule biophysics to cellular and molecular biological studies the editors aim to provide a unified view on how helicases function in the cell, are regulated in response to different cellular stresses and are integrated into large macromolecular assemblies to form a complex and adaptive living system.

The Eukaryotic Replisome a Guide to Protein Structure and Function

Author: Stuart MacNeill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745729
Format: PDF
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High-fidelity chromosomal DNA replication underpins all life on the planet. In humans, there are clear links between chromosome replication defects and genome instability, genetic disease and cancer, making a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of genome duplication vital for future advances in diagnosis and treatment. Building on recent exciting advances in protein structure determination, the book will take the reader on a guided journey through the intricate molecular machinery of eukaryotic chromosome replication and provide an invaluable source of information, ideas and inspiration for all those with an interest in chromosome replication, whether from a basic science, translational biology and medical research perspective.

Protein Conformational Dynamics

Author: Ke-li Han
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319029703
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book discusses how biological molecules exert their function and regulate biological processes, with a clear focus on how conformational dynamics of proteins are critical in this respect. In the last decade, the advancements in computational biology, nuclear magnetic resonance including paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, and fluorescence-based ensemble/single-molecule techniques have shown that biological molecules (proteins, DNAs and RNAs) fluctuate under equilibrium conditions. The conformational and energetic spaces that these fluctuations explore likely contain active conformations that are critical for their function. More interestingly, these fluctuations can respond actively to external cues, which introduces layers of tight regulation on the biological processes that they dictate. A growing number of studies have suggested that conformational dynamics of proteins govern their role in regulating biological functions, examples of this regulation can be found in signal transduction, molecular recognition, apoptosis, protein / ion / other molecules translocation and gene expression. On the experimental side, the technical advances have offered deep insights into the conformational motions of a number of proteins. These studies greatly enrich our knowledge of the interplay between structure and function. On the theoretical side, novel approaches and detailed computational simulations have provided powerful tools in the study of enzyme catalysis, protein / drug design, protein / ion / other molecule translocation and protein folding/aggregation, to name but a few. This work contains detailed information, not only on the conformational motions of biological systems, but also on the potential governing forces of conformational dynamics (transient interactions, chemical and physical origins, thermodynamic properties). New developments in computational simulations will greatly enhance our understanding of how these molecules function in various biological events.

GAPDH Biological Properties and Diversity

Author: Norbert W. Seidler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400747160
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The book represents a comprehensive review and synthesis of the biomedical literature that spans over a half-century on a single protein called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (or, GAPDH). Due to the protein’s involvement in a vast array of cellular activities, GAPDH is of interest to the cell biologist, immunologist, virologist, biochemist etc. The protein has a significant role in fertility, cancer and neurodegeneration, suggesting that this book can be a vital resource for drug development. GAPDH function may provide insight into anesthesia. Furthermore, GAPDH is highly conserved meaning that the protein found in microorganisms, such as pathogens, remained relatively unchanged in evolution. Pathogens use GAPDH as a virulence factor, offering a unique challenge in developing anti-microbial agents that target this protein. To the evolutionary biologist, a book on the multi-functionality of GAPDH provides a focal point for a cogent discussion on the very origin of life.

The Cell Biology of Stem Cells

Author: Eran Meshorer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441970374
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Stem cells have been gaining a lot of attention in recent years. Their unique potential to self-renew and differentiate has turned them into an attractive model for the study of basic biological questions such as cell division, replication, transcription, cell fate decisions, and more. With embryonic stem (ES) cells that can generate each cell type in the mammalian body and adult stem cells that are able to give rise to the cells within a given lineage, basic questions at different developmental stages can be addressed. Importantly, both adult and embryonic stem cells provide an excellent tool for cell therapy, making stem cell research ever more pertinent to regenerative medicine. As the title The Cell Biology of Stem Cells suggests, our book deals with multiple aspects of stem cell biology, ranging from their basic molecular characteristics to the in vivo stem cell trafficking of adult stem cells and the adult stem-cell niche, and ends with a visit to regeneration and cell fate reprogramming. In the first chapter, “Early embryonic cell fate decisions in the mouse”, Amy Ralson and Yojiro Yamanaka describe the mechanisms that support early developmental decisions in the mouse pre-implantation embryo and the current understanding of the source of the most immature stem cell types, which includes ES cells, trophoblast stem (TS) cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells.

DNA Replication

Author: Hisao Masai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811069557
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book reviews the latest trends and future directions of DNA replication research. The contents reflect upon the principles that have been established through the genetic and enzymatic studies of bacterial, viral, and cellular replication during the past decades. The book begins with a historical overview of the studies on eukaryotic DNA replication by Professor Thomas Kelly, a pioneer of the field. The following chapters include genome-wide studies of replication origins and initiation factor binding, as well as the timing of DNA replications, mechanisms of initiation, DNA chain elongation and termination of DNA replication, the structural basis of functions of protein complexes responsible for execution of DNA replication, cell cycle-dependent regulation of DNA replication, the nature of replication stress and cells’ strategy to deal with the stress, and finally how all these phenomena are interconnected to genome instability and development of various diseases. By reviewing the existing concepts ranging from the old principles to the newest ideas, the book gives readers an opportunity to learn how the classical replication principles are now being modified and new concepts are being generated to explain how genome DNA replication is achieved with such high adaptability and plasticity. With the development of new methods including cryoelectron microscopy analyses of huge protein complexes, single molecular analyses of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, and total reconstitution of eukaryotic DNA replication with purified factors, the field is enjoying one of its most exciting moments, and this highly timely book conveys that excitement to all interested readers.

Diabetes

Author: Shamim Ahmad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461454417
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Diabetes is a complex disease and is also one of the most common. It is very difficult to reach an accurate estimate for the global prevalence of diabetes since the standards and methods of data collection vary widely in different parts of the world. In addition, many potential sufferers are not included in the count because according to an estimate about 50% of cases remain undiagnosed for up to 10 years. However, according to an estimate for 2010, globally, there are about 285 million people (amounting to 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 439 million by 2030 if no cure is found. The general increase in life expectancy, leading to an ageing population, and the global rise in obesity are two main reasons for the increase. With the basic platform set, Editor presents his views and advice to the readers, especially to diabetic patients suffering from T2DM, on the basis of his observations and information collected from other diabetics.

Conn s Handbook of Models for Human Aging

Author: Jeffrey L. Ram
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128113545
Format: PDF
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Conn's Handbook of Models for Human Aging, Second Edition, presents key aspects of biology, nutrition, factors affecting lifespan, methods of age determination, use in research and the disadvantages/advantages of use. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this updated edition is designed as the only comprehensive, current work that covers the diversity in aging models. Chapters on comparative models explore age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's, joint disease, cataracts, cancer and obesity. Also included are new tricks and approaches not available in primary publications. This must-have handbook is an indispensable resource for researchers interested in the mechanisms of aging, gerontologists, health professionals, allied health practitioners and students. Combines both the methods of study for human aging and animal models Provides a historical overview and discussion of model availability, key methods and ethical issues Contains over 200 full color illustrations

Parvoviruses

Author: Jonathan Kerr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1444114786
Format: PDF, ePub
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This comprehensive reference work brings together for the first time information on every aspect of the parvoviruses in a single volume. It presents the new system of parvovirus classification, as agreed by the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and includes cutting edge information on the virology, molecular and cellular biology, immunology and clinical manifestations of infection with each known and proposed member of the family Parvoviridae. The book also describes the rapidly expanding basic and clinical science which underpins gene therapy applications using helper-dependent and helper-independent parvoviruses. The respected editorial group has drawn together renowned contributors from around the world to produce what will undoubtedly become the standard reference on the subject. It is essential reading for clinical or research virologists and microbiologists, infectious disease specialists, and public health specialists and laboratories.

The Big Book on Small Heat Shock Proteins

Author: Robert M Tanguay
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331916077X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Based upon a workshop entitled “The Small HSP World” held in Québec 2-5 October 2014. Twenty-five scientists provided chapters for the book. The chapters are from the best scientists currently working in this field. These colleagues include Arrigo, Benesch, Benjamin, Buchner-Haslbeck-Weinkauf, Benndorf, Boelens, Carra, Chang, Currie, Ecroyd, Emanuelsson, Fu, Garrido, Golenhofen, Gusev, Hightower, Kampinga, Lavoie, MacRae, Quinlan, Tanguay, Vierling, Vigh, Weeks and Wu. Briefly, the book starts with the structure of small heat shock proteins, moving to their functions and finishing with their involvement in diseases. Although this is quite broad, the structural aspect will be the unifying theme of the book.