Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Genserik Reniers
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444543244
Format: PDF
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Domino Effects in the Process Industries discusses state-of-the-art theories, conceptual models, insights and practical issues surrounding large-scale knock-on accidents—so-called domino effects—in the chemical and process industries. The book treats such extremely low-frequency phenomena from a technological perspective, studying possible causes and introducing several approaches to assess and control the risks of these scenarios. The authors also examine these events from a managerial viewpoint, discussing single and multi-plant management insights and requirements to take pro-active measures to prevent such events. Academics, regulators, and industrialists who study and analyze domino effects in order to prevent such events will find the book unique and highly valuable. Outlines available methods in analyzing these events, aiding understanding of the accidents and their causes Covers current modelling, control and management tactics of domino effects, -facilitating prevention Identifies areas where new research is needed

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Genserik L. L. Reniers
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN: 9780444543233
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The topic concerns the so-called 'domino effects' or accidents with escalation effects within the chemical industry. Domino effects can be defined in a number of ways. For a list of domino effect definitions, see Reniers' article in the Journal of Hazardous Materials 177 (2010). The most widely used definition is that of Delvosalle (1998): "A domino effect is a cascade of accidents (domino events) in which the consequences of a previous accident are increased by the following one(s), spatially as well as temporally, leading to a major accident.". To the best of the authors' knowledge, no book is currently available that specifically deals with the important topic of preventing domino effects in the chemical and process industries. However, a large amount of academic research has been carried out since the EU Seveso-II Directive entered into force (1996), requiring that such low frequency/high consequence events are considered in companies' safety reports (art. 8). Academic interest is evident by the considerable amount of scientific papers on the subject published since 1996. The topic has thus gained importance within the academic world. With respect to industry, domino effects and their prevention are mainly considered important due to the legislative requirements, that goes beyond the capabilities of simplified domino assessment methods used before the year 2000. Since the 2003 Amendment of the Seveso-II Directive, imposing even more strict regulations on the reporting of domino scenarios and on the identification of domino effects outside the boundaries of a single industrial site, domino effects constitute an issue that needs to be specifically addressed in the management of industrial sites. Moreover, especially since 9/11, the possibility of domino effects has become important also from a security perspective, thus from the viewpoint of preventing and/or mitigating intentionally induced escalation events (e.g. by terrorists or by disgruntled employees). Presents Domino effects from a technological as well as a managerial (non-technological) perspective- holistic/multidisciplinary approach Covers Domino effects from a safety (non-intentional) as well as a security (intentional) perspective-guidelines for preventing accidents and actions to be taken Written for academics as well as industrialists (easy to understand, yet advanced science)-holistic overview of the topic from theoretical and practical aspects Provides State-of-the-art methodologies for domino effect assessment-easy to understand methods for assessment of domino effects Provides worked examples on key-methodologies-real life situations enabling the section of the most appropriate methodology Includes Glossary-clear and unambiguous definition of terms used throughout the text which avoids misunderstandings

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Alessandro Tugnoli
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082526
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Risk-based design has an important role in the inherent prevention of domino effect, limiting the possibility of escalation by both physical distances between units and introduction of robust safety barriers. In this chapter, the role of design in reducing domino hazard has been explored. Layout definition was identified as a key factor for the prevention of escalation. Threshold values for escalation to be used in design activities were defined. Thus, criteria for the assessment of appropriate safety distances were developed and implemented in layout design. The integration of different strategies in accident mitigation was identified as the key in achieving safer plants with respect to domino accidents. Since conceptual tools alone frequently fail in solving the tradeoffs related to the conflicting needs in the design improvement, inherent safety metrics were introduced to support design activities.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Bahman Abdolhamidzadeh
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082542
Format: PDF, ePub
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Nowadays the application of decision support systems (DSSs) in process safety is more important than ever. The use of DSS for preventing domino effects is one of the diverse applications of these computer-automated toolkits. Different software packages were developed in recent years, each trying to manage domino risk by a specific approach. In this chapter, the definition, architecture, benefits and essential characteristics of DSS toolkits are described. The application, scope, approach, technical features, advantages, shortcomings and limitations of all the available computerized tools and software packages presented up to now for managing domino effect are then discussed and analyzed thoroughly. Finally, a framework for an integrated DSS to prevent domino effects based on all existing advancements and potential possibilities for improvement is introduced.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Ernesto Salzano
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082445
Format: PDF, Docs
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Explosions produce pressure waves which expand in the atmosphere. When impacting industrial equipment, domino effects may be caused if the equipment content is flammable or toxic. A detailed analysis of these scenarios requires complex computational tecniques based on finite element analysis. Simplified methodologies have been developed in the past years for land use planning and quantitative risk assessment. These approaches are based on the definition of probability functions and threshold values for the occurrence of loss of containment from damaged systems and rely on the prediction of peak overpressure with respect to distance from the explosion source and on the structural category of the target equipment.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Valerio Cozzani
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082410
Format: PDF, ePub
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Domino effects may cause more severe accident scenarios in the chemical and process industries. An introduction is given to the context and state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge concerning accident scenarios where domino effect(s) took place, as well as to European regulations on the subject. The specific context of chemical clusters with respect to safety and security assessment when dealing with domino scenarios is also introduced.

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants

Author: Joaquim Casal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 044463892X
Format: PDF
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Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants, Second Edition, covers the essential aspects of a diverse range of major accidents including fires, explosions and toxic clouds, and provides the key models necessary to calculate their effects and consequences with applications to real incidents. New topics in this up-to-date edition include dust explosions, evaluation of frequencies and probabilities, domino effect, transportation of hazardous materials, and analysis of significant accidents. The new edition of Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants is a valuable resource to engineers from the chemical/petrochemical industry and those working with the transportation of hazardous materials (by road, rail, or pipelines), in addition to engineering companies and academics alike. Evaluates the expected/probable occurrence frequency of major accidents Describes the main features of fires, explosions and toxic releases Includes mathematical modeling of major accidents, evaluation of their effects, and consequences on people and equipment Explains how to perform a Quantitative Risk Analysis

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Genserik Reniers
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082437
Format: PDF, ePub
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The first step in the assessment of domino accident scenarios is the definition of the basic elements of escalation resulting in a domino effect. In the present chapter, the fundamental elements of a domino accident are discussed. A generic and unambiguous definition for “domino effect” is provided, taking into consideration a myriad of definitions for the term that have been suggested since 1984. An approach is elaborated and discussed to allow drafting a comprehensive and full-scale categorization of events that may constitute a domino accident. The concepts of propagation and escalation are clarified. The possibility of simple, multiple-level and parallel propagation are introduced and discussed. A framework for the quantitative assessment of domino scenarios is provided.

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Author: Valerio Cozzani
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 012808247X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Blast waves, fires and fragment projection are by far the most common causes of escalation leading to domino accidents. The present chapter deals with less-frequent and more controversial domino scenarios: domino events due to indirect escalation and external events. Indirect causes of escalation, even if not frequent, may be extremely important since they are likely to be overlooked, in particular in complex industrial clusters. External hazard factors can also cause severe domino accidents. Natural events or intentional malicious acts of interference can escalate to cause severe domino events. The present chapter focuses on these particular causes of escalations, aiming to provide an approach for the assessment of these specific domino scenarios.