Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis

Author: Hans van Houwelingen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439835438
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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There is a huge amount of literature on statistical models for the prediction of survival after diagnosis of a wide range of diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Current practice is to use prediction models based on the Cox proportional hazards model and to present those as static models for remaining lifetime after diagnosis or treatment. In contrast, Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis focuses on dynamic models for the remaining lifetime at later points in time, for instance using landmark models. Designed to be useful to applied statisticians and clinical epidemiologists, each chapter in the book has a practical focus on the issues of working with real life data. Chapters conclude with additional material either on the interpretation of the models, alternative models, or theoretical background. The book consists of four parts: Part I deals with prognostic models for survival data using (clinical) information available at baseline, based on the Cox model Part II is about prognostic models for survival data using (clinical) information available at baseline, when the proportional hazards assumption of the Cox model is violated Part III is dedicated to the use of time-dependent information in dynamic prediction Part IV explores dynamic prediction models for survival data using genomic data Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis summarizes cutting-edge research on the dynamic use of predictive models with traditional and new approaches. Aimed at applied statisticians who actively analyze clinical data in collaboration with clinicians, the analyses of the different data sets throughout the book demonstrate how predictive models can be obtained from proper data sets.

Handbook of Survival Analysis

Author: John P. Klein
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146655567X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Handbook of Survival Analysis presents modern techniques and research problems in lifetime data analysis. This area of statistics deals with time-to-event data that is complicated by censoring and the dynamic nature of events occurring in time. With chapters written by leading researchers in the field, the handbook focuses on advances in survival analysis techniques, covering classical and Bayesian approaches. It gives a complete overview of the current status of survival analysis and should inspire further research in the field. Accessible to a wide range of readers, the book provides: An introduction to various areas in survival analysis for graduate students and novices A reference to modern investigations into survival analysis for more established researchers A text or supplement for a second or advanced course in survival analysis A useful guide to statistical methods for analyzing survival data experiments for practicing statisticians

Joint Models for Longitudinal and Time to Event Data

Author: Dimitris Rizopoulos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439872864
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In longitudinal studies it is often of interest to investigate how a marker that is repeatedly measured in time is associated with a time to an event of interest, e.g., prostate cancer studies where longitudinal PSA level measurements are collected in conjunction with the time-to-recurrence. Joint Models for Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data: With Applications in R provides a full treatment of random effects joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event outcomes that can be utilized to analyze such data. The content is primarily explanatory, focusing on applications of joint modeling, but sufficient mathematical details are provided to facilitate understanding of the key features of these models. All illustrations put forward can be implemented in the R programming language via the freely available package JM written by the author. All the R code used in the book is available at: http://jmr.r-forge.r-project.org/

Disease Modelling and Public Health

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444639691
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Disease Modelling and Public Health, Part A, Volume 36 addresses new challenges in existing and emerging diseases with a variety of comprehensive chapters that cover Infectious Disease Modeling, Bayesian Disease Mapping for Public Health, Real time estimation of the case fatality ratio and risk factor of death, Alternative Sampling Designs for Time-To-Event Data with Applications to Biomarker Discovery in Alzheimer's Disease, Dynamic risk prediction for cardiovascular disease: An illustration using the ARIC Study, Theoretical advances in type 2 diabetes, Finite Mixture Models in Biostatistics, and Models of Individual and Collective Behavior for Public Health Epidemiology. As a two part volume, the series covers an extensive range of techniques in the field. It present a vital resource for statisticians who need to access a number of different methods for assessing epidemic spread in population, or in formulating public health policy. Presents a comprehensive, two-part volume written by leading subject experts Provides a unique breadth and depth of content coverage Addresses the most cutting-edge developments in the field Includes chapters on Ebola and the Zika virus; topics which have grown in prominence and scholarly output

Joint Modeling of Longitudinal and Time to Event Data

Author: Robert Elashoff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439807833
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Longitudinal studies often incur several problems that challenge standard statistical methods for data analysis. These problems include non-ignorable missing data in longitudinal measurements of one or more response variables, informative observation times of longitudinal data, and survival analysis with intermittently measured time-dependent covariates that are subject to measurement error and/or substantial biological variation. Joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data has emerged as a novel approach to handle these issues. Joint Modeling of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data provides a systematic introduction and review of state-of-the-art statistical methodology in this active research field. The methods are illustrated by real data examples from a wide range of clinical research topics. A collection of data sets and software for practical implementation of the joint modeling methodologies are available through the book website. This book serves as a reference book for scientific investigators who need to analyze longitudinal and/or survival data, as well as researchers developing methodology in this field. It may also be used as a textbook for a graduate level course in biostatistics or statistics.

Dynamical Biostatistical Models

Author: Daniel Commenges
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498729681
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Dynamical Biostatistical Models presents statistical models and methods for the analysis of longitudinal data. The book focuses on models for analyzing repeated measures of quantitative and qualitative variables and events history, including survival and multistate models. Most of the advanced methods, such as multistate and joint models, can be applied using SAS or R software. The book describes advanced regression models that include the time dimension, such as mixed-effect models, survival models, multistate models, and joint models for repeated measures and time-to-event data. It also explores the possibility of unifying these models through a stochastic process point of view and introduces the dynamic approach to causal inference. Drawing on much of their own extensive research, the authors use three main examples throughout the text to illustrate epidemiological questions and methodological issues. Readers will see how each method is applied to real data and how to interpret the results.

Statistical Learning with Sparsity

Author: Trevor Hastie
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498712177
Format: PDF, ePub
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Discover New Methods for Dealing with High-Dimensional Data A sparse statistical model has only a small number of nonzero parameters or weights; therefore, it is much easier to estimate and interpret than a dense model. Statistical Learning with Sparsity: The Lasso and Generalizations presents methods that exploit sparsity to help recover the underlying signal in a set of data. Top experts in this rapidly evolving field, the authors describe the lasso for linear regression and a simple coordinate descent algorithm for its computation. They discuss the application of l1 penalties to generalized linear models and support vector machines, cover generalized penalties such as the elastic net and group lasso, and review numerical methods for optimization. They also present statistical inference methods for fitted (lasso) models, including the bootstrap, Bayesian methods, and recently developed approaches. In addition, the book examines matrix decomposition, sparse multivariate analysis, graphical models, and compressed sensing. It concludes with a survey of theoretical results for the lasso. In this age of big data, the number of features measured on a person or object can be large and might be larger than the number of observations. This book shows how the sparsity assumption allows us to tackle these problems and extract useful and reproducible patterns from big datasets. Data analysts, computer scientists, and theorists will appreciate this thorough and up-to-date treatment of sparse statistical modeling.

Probability For Analysts

Author: Karl Stromberg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780412041716
Format: PDF
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This book will enable researchers and students of analysis to more easily understand research papers in which probabilistic methods are used to prove theorems of analysis, many of which have no other known proofs. The book assumes a course in measure and integration theory but requires little or no background in probability theory. It emplhasizes topics of interest to analysts, including random series, martingales and Brownian motion.

Multi State Survival Models for Interval Censored Data

Author: Ardo van den Hout
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315356732
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Multi-State Survival Models for Interval-Censored Data introduces methods to describe stochastic processes that consist of transitions between states over time. It is targeted at researchers in medical statistics, epidemiology, demography, and social statistics. One of the applications in the book is a three-state process for dementia and survival in the older population. This process is described by an illness-death model with a dementia-free state, a dementia state, and a dead state. Statistical modelling of a multi-state process can investigate potential associations between the risk of moving to the next state and variables such as age, gender, or education. A model can also be used to predict the multi-state process. The methods are for longitudinal data subject to interval censoring. Depending on the definition of a state, it is possible that the time of the transition into a state is not observed exactly. However, when longitudinal data are available the transition time may be known to lie in the time interval defined by two successive observations. Such an interval-censored observation scheme can be taken into account in the statistical inference. Multi-state modelling is an elegant combination of statistical inference and the theory of stochastic processes. Multi-State Survival Models for Interval-Censored Data shows that the statistical modelling is versatile and allows for a wide range of applications.

Predictive Statistics

Author: Bertrand S. Clarke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108594204
Format: PDF, ePub
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All scientific disciplines prize predictive success. Conventional statistical analyses, however, treat prediction as secondary, instead focusing on modeling and hence estimation, testing, and detailed physical interpretation, tackling these tasks before the predictive adequacy of a model is established. This book outlines a fully predictive approach to statistical problems based on studying predictors; the approach does not require predictors correspond to a model although this important special case is included in the general approach. Throughout, the point is to examine predictive performance before considering conventional inference. These ideas are traced through five traditional subfields of statistics, helping readers to refocus and adopt a directly predictive outlook. The book also considers prediction via contemporary 'black box' techniques and emerging data types and methodologies where conventional modeling is so difficult that good prediction is the main criterion available for evaluating the performance of a statistical method. Well-documented open-source R code in a Github repository allows readers to replicate examples and apply techniques to other investigations.