Early Childhood Education and Development in Poor Villages of Indonesia

Author: Amer Hasan
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821399004
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Indonesia has begun to emerge into middle-income status, yet persistent poverty and stark inequalities continue to affect young children’s development. This book tells the story of Indonesia’s efforts to change the trajectory of development for poor children. Many countries have similar aims, but several aspects of what is reported here are especially valuable and perhaps unique. The study offers data on all aspects of health and development in a sample of rural young children, collected with internationally-validated measures, as well as household information, information about parenting practices including feeding patterns, parent questionnaires, and data on the prevalence and distribution of ECED services. The data reported in this book is based on a sample of more than 6,000 Indonesian children living in 310 poor villages, including two age cohorts (aged 1 and 4 years old when data were first collected on their development in 2009). From the start, the project aimed not only to support service provision but also to support the development of national standards, build national and district capacity, and encourage the establishment of a system of ECED quality assurance, efforts that are still in process. Few such analyses have been done with such a large sample and with multiple measures. These design features allow a high level of confidence in the results that are reported. The lessons from this book will help to inform not only this project’s further implementation but ECED initiatives in Indonesia and around the world. Thus, the results presented in this book are of significance for researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners within and beyond Indonesia. The experiences and research results discussed here are especially relevant for: • Researchers in early childhood development and program evaluation; • Policymakers within and beyond Indonesia; • Providers of early childhood services; • Professional development providers; and • Advocates for quality early childhood services.

Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia

Author: Amina Denboba
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464806519
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since the early 2000s, Indonesia has taken a number of steps to prioritize early childhood development - ranging from the inclusion of Early Childhood Development (ECD) in the National Education System Law No. 20 in 2003 to a Presidential Declaration on Holistic and Integrated ECD and the launch of the country's first ever ECD Census in 2011. These policy milestones have occurred in parallel with sustained progress on outcomes included in the Millennium Development Goals, including for child malnutrition, child mortality and universal basic education. Additional progress could be achieved by strengthening ECD policies further. This report presents findings from an assessment of ECD policies and programs in Indonesia based on two World Bank tools: the ECD module of the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) and a guide on essential interventions for investing in young children. Results from the application of both tools to Indonesia are used to suggest a number of policy options for consideration.

Taking Stock of Programs to Develop Socioemotional Skills

Author: Maria Laura Sánchez Puerta
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464808732
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book represents a systematic review of the documented impacts of programs aimed at fostering socio-emotional skills in developed and developing countries. It uses a life-cycle approach to organize the findings from rigorous evaluations of more than 80 programs. This includes programs for toddlers and young children before primary school, programs for students enrolled in formal education, and programs targeted at the out-of-school population. The book develops a conceptual framework that helps to identify the program characteristics and participants’ profiles associated with a range of program outcomes. These include health-related, behavioral, academic or cognitive, and economic-related outcomes. The review finds that few of the programs studied focus exclusively on the development of socio-emotional skills. In fact, most efforts to develop socio-emotional skills are embedded within innovative education and training curricula, as well as pedagogical and classroom practices. Evidence shows that programs are particularly effective when targeted to highly vulnerable populations and, in particular, to young children. Overall, findings indicate that high-quality programs for young children tend to foster cognitive abilities in the short run and to impact socio-emotional skills over the long run. Programs for students enrolled in formal education (primary and secondary levels) show positive and significant impacts on the outcomes reviewed. The most successful of these programs are implemented school-wide and follow the SAFE approach: that is, they are appropriately sequenced, active, focused, and explicit. Finally, the review finds that programs for out-of-school children and youth are usually designed as a means of achieving immediate labor market outcomes (e.g., job-placement, formal employment, and higher wages). While some of these programs show positive and statistically significant impacts on socio-emotional skills, the impacts tend to be small.

Growing Smarter

Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464812691
Format: PDF
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One-quarter of the world’s school-age children live in East Asia and Pacific. During the past 50 years, some economies in the region have successfully transformed themselves by investing in the continuous upgrading of the knowledge, skills, and abilities of their workforce. Through policy foresight, they have produced graduates with new levels of knowledge and skills almost as fast as industries have increased their demand for skilled workers. Yet the success of these high-performing systems has not been replicated throughout the region. Tens of millions of students are in school but not learning, and as many as 60 percent of students remain in school systems that are struggling to escape from the global learning crisis or in systems where performance is likely poor. Many students in these systems fail to reach basic levels of proficiency in key subjects and are greatly disadvantaged because of it. Growing Smarter: Learning and Equitable Development in East Asia and Pacific focuses on the experiences of economies in the region that have been able to expand schooling and learning and showcases those that have managed to pursue successful education reforms at scale. By examining these experiences, the report provides both diagnoses and detailed recommendations for improvement not only for education systems within East Asia and Pacific but also for countries across the globe. In East Asia and Pacific, the impressive record of success in education in some low- and middle-income countries is proof of concept that schooling in resource-constrained contexts can lead to learning for all. This report identifies the policies and practices necessary to ensure that students learn and suggests how countries can improve learning outcomes.

Teacher Reform in Indonesia

Author: Mae Chu Chang
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821399608
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The book features an analysis of teacher reform in Indonesia, which entailed a doubling of teacher salaries upon certification. It describes the political economy context in which the reform was developed and implemented, and analyzes the impact of the reform on teacher knowledge, skills, and student outcomes.

No Small Matter

Author: Harold Alderman
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821386786
Format: PDF
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"Education is often seen as a fundamental means to improve economic prospects for individuals from low income settings. However, even with increased emphasis on basic education for all, many individuals fail to achieve basic skills to succeed in life. The book presents evidence that one core reason is that by the time a child is old enough to attend school, there is already a wide disparity in cognitive skills and in emotional and behavioral development among children from households of different socioeconomic backgrounds. Low levels of cognitive development in early childhood strongly correlate with low socio-economic status (as measured by wealth and parental education) as well as malnutrition. These disadvantages are often exacerbated by economic crises. Fortunately, however, as documented in this volume, there are programs that have proven effective in promoting a child's development through caregiver-child interaction and stimulation, and with well designed preschool programs. While preschool programs currently cover a modest share of low income children, expansion of such services to at risk populations is a cost-effective means of improving overall educational achievement. Thus, focused preschool programs can serve as a key investment in a strategy to reduce the transmission of poverty from poor parents to their children."

World Development Report 2018

Author: World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464810982
Format: PDF, ePub
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Every year, the World Bank’s World Development Report (WDR) features a topic of central importance to global development. The 2018 WDR—LEARNING to Realize Education’s Promise—is the first ever devoted entirely to education. And the time is right: education has long been critical to human welfare, but it is even more so in a time of rapid economic and social change. The best way to equip children and youth for the future is to make their learning the center of all efforts to promote education. The 2018 WDR explores four main themes: First, education’s promise: education is a powerful instrument for eradicating poverty and promoting shared prosperity, but fulfilling its potential requires better policies—both within and outside the education system. Second, the need to shine a light on learning: despite gains in access to education, recent learning assessments reveal that many young people around the world, especially those who are poor or marginalized, are leaving school unequipped with even the foundational skills they need for life. At the same time, internationally comparable learning assessments show that skills in many middle-income countries lag far behind what those countries aspire to. And too often these shortcomings are hidden—so as a first step to tackling this learning crisis, it is essential to shine a light on it by assessing student learning better. Third, how to make schools work for all learners: research on areas such as brain science, pedagogical innovations, and school management has identified interventions that promote learning by ensuring that learners are prepared, teachers are both skilled and motivated, and other inputs support the teacher-learner relationship. Fourth, how to make systems work for learning: achieving learning throughout an education system requires more than just scaling up effective interventions. Countries must also overcome technical and political barriers by deploying salient metrics for mobilizing actors and tracking progress, building coalitions for learning, and taking an adaptive approach to reform.

Early Child Development from Measurement to Action

Author: Mary E. Young
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821370871
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Prosperity in the world today depends on societies' nurturing of young children. Quality care (stimulation, health, and nutrition) during ages 0 - 5 has a decisive and long-lasting impact on a person's development, ability to learn, and capacity to regulate emotions. Cognitive and noncognitive (social and emotional) skills, set early in life, determine later success. New research in neurobiology and the behavioral and social sciences is converging to enhance this understanding of early child development. Recently, researchers noted epigenetic effects in brain development - that is, the interaction of environment (early experiences) with genetics to shape brain structure and function - that with proper nurturing would enable people to have competence to create prosperous, sustainable, tolerant, nonviolent, and democratic communities. The World Bank recently hosted a symposium on the priority of early child development for economic growth and equity. The participants urged application of population - based tools and measures to assess the outcomes of children's early years and children's readiness for school. This approach, which shifts the focus from measures of disease, dysfunction, and mortality, is already yielding essential data for designing intervention programs, identifying children at risk, and leveraging policy and investment - to improve the possibilities for all children globally.

Health Financing in Indonesia

Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821380079
Format: PDF, Docs
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In 2004 the Indonesian government made a commitment to provide its entire population with health insurance coverage through a mandatory public health insurance scheme. It has moved boldly already provides coverage to an estimated 76.4 million poor and near poor, funded through the public budget. Nevertheless, over half the population still lacks health insurance coverage, and the full fiscal impacts of the government's program for the poor have not been fully assessed or felt. In addition, significant deficiencies in the efficiency and equity of the current health system, unless addressed will exacerbate cost pressures and could preclude the effective implementation of universal coverage (Ue and the desired result of improvements in population health outcomes and financial protection. For Indonesia to achieve UC, systems' performance must be improved and key policy choices with respect to the configuration of the health financing system must be made. Indonesia's health system performs well with respect to some health outcomes and financial protection, but there is potential for significant improvement. High-level political decisions are necessary on key elements of the health financing reform package. The key transitional questions to get there include: [ the benefits that can be afforded and their impacts on health outcomes and financial protection; [ how the more than 50 percent of those currently without coverage will be insured; [ how to pay medical care providers to assure access, efficiency, and quality; [ developing a streamlined and efficient administrative structure; [ how to address the current supply constraints to assure availability of promised services; [ how to raise revenues to finance the system, including the program for the poor as well as currently uninsured groups that may require government subsidization such as the more than 60 million informal sector workers, the 85 percent of workers in firms of less than five employees, and the 70 percent of the population living in rural areas.

Global Perspectives on Human Capital in Early Childhood Education

Author: Theodora Lightfoot-Rueda
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137490861
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Human capital theory, developing children as future workers, shapes thinking about early childhood education policy around the globe. International contributors problematize this thinking and offer alternatives.