Earthquake and Volcano Deformation

Author: Paul Segall
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400833856
Format: PDF
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Earthquake and Volcano Deformation is the first textbook to present the mechanical models of earthquake and volcanic processes, emphasizing earth-surface deformations that can be compared with observations from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric Radar (InSAR), and borehole strain- and tiltmeters. Paul Segall provides the physical and mathematical fundamentals for the models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. Segall highlights analytical methods of continuum mechanics applied to problems of active crustal deformation. Topics include elastic dislocation theory in homogeneous and layered half-spaces, crack models of faults and planar intrusions, elastic fields due to pressurized spherical and ellipsoidal magma chambers, time-dependent deformation resulting from faulting in an elastic layer overlying a viscoelastic half-space and related earthquake cycle models, poroelastic effects due to faulting and magma chamber inflation in a fluid-saturated crust, and the effects of gravity on deformation. He also explains changes in the gravitational field due to faulting and magmatic intrusion, effects of irregular surface topography and earth curvature, and modern concepts in rate- and state-dependent fault friction. This textbook presents sample calculations and compares model predictions against field data from seismic and volcanic settings from around the world. Earthquake and Volcano Deformation requires working knowledge of stress and strain, and advanced calculus. It is appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in geophysics, geology, and engineering. Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to: http://press.princeton.edu/class_use/solutions.html

Volcano Deformation

Author: Daniel Dzurisin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540493026
Format: PDF
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Volcanoes and eruptions are dramatic surface man telemetry and processing, and volcano-deformation ifestations of dynamic processes within the Earth, source models over the past three decades. There has mostly but not exclusively localized along the been a virtual explosion of volcano-geodesy studies boundaries of Earth's relentlessly shifting tectonic and in the modeling and interpretation of ground plates. Anyone who has witnessed volcanic activity deformation data. Nonetheless, other than selective, has to be impressed by the variety and complexity of brief summaries in journal articles and general visible eruptive phenomena. Equally complex, works on volcano-monitoring and hazards mitiga however, if not even more so, are the geophysical, tion (e. g. , UNESCO, 1972; Agnew, 1986; Scarpa geochemical, and hydrothermal processes that occur and Tilling, 1996), a modern, comprehensive treat underground - commonly undetectable by the ment of volcano geodesy and its applications was human senses - before, during, and after eruptions. non-existent, until now. Experience at volcanoes worldwide has shown that, In the mid-1990s, when Daniel Dzurisin (DZ to at volcanoes with adequate instrumental monitor friends and colleagues) was serving as the Scientist ing, nearly all eruptions are preceded and accom in-Charge of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observa panied by measurable changes in the physical and tory (CVO), I first learned of his dream to write a (or) chemical state of the volcanic system. While book on volcano geodesy.

Introduction to Volcanic Seismology

Author: Vyacheslav M Zobin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444636323
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Introduction to Volcanic Seismology, Third Edition covers all aspects of volcano seismology, specifically focusing on recent studies and developments. This new edition expands on the historical aspects, including updated information on how volcanic seismology was handled in the past (instrumentation, processing techniques, number of observatories worldwide) that is compared to present day tactics. Updated case studies can be found throughout the book, providing information from the most studied volcanoes in the world, including those in Iceland. Additional features include descriptions of analog experiments, seismic networks, both permanent and temporal, and the link between volcanoes, plate tectonics, and mantle plumes. Beginning with an introduction to the history of volcanic seismology, the book then discusses models developed for the study of the origin of volcanic earthquakes of both a volcano-tectonic and eruption nature. In addition, the book covers a variety of topics from the different aspects of volcano-tectonic activity, the seismic events associated with the surface manifestations of volcanic activity, descriptions of eruption earthquakes, volcanic tremor, seismic noise of pyroclastic flows, explosion earthquakes, and the mitigation of volcanic hazards. Presents updated global case studies to provide real-world applications, including studies from Iceland Delivers illustrations alongside detailed descriptions of volcanic eruptions Includes essential information that students and practitioners need to understand the essential elements of volcanic eruptions Updates include information on how volcanic seismology was handled in the past (instrumentation, processing techniques, number of observatories worldwide) that are compared to the tactics of today

The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

Author: Haraldur Sigurdsson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123859395
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity. Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference Glossary of 3,000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included

Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose Unrest Precursors and Timing

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309454158
Format: PDF, Docs
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Volcanic eruptions are common, with more than 50 volcanic eruptions in the United States alone in the past 31 years. These eruptions can have devastating economic and social consequences, even at great distances from the volcano. Fortunately many eruptions are preceded by unrest that can be detected using ground, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. Data from these instruments, combined with basic understanding of how volcanoes work, form the basis for forecasting eruptionsâ€"where, when, how big, how long, and the consequences. Accurate forecasts of the likelihood and magnitude of an eruption in a specified timeframe are rooted in a scientific understanding of the processes that govern the storage, ascent, and eruption of magma. Yet our understanding of volcanic systems is incomplete and biased by the limited number of volcanoes and eruption styles observed with advanced instrumentation. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing identifies key science questions, research and observation priorities, and approaches for building a volcano science community capable of tackling them. This report presents goals for making major advances in volcano science.

Natural Hazards

Author: Ramesh Singh
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351681192
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book addresses relevant aspects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides from a scientific and applied engineering perspective. It aims to provide information on the physics and physical processes, indicators, monitoring, mitigation, and geology of these natural hazards. The book highlights the current state of research on these hazards, and deals primarily with their understanding, monitoring and prediction. There is emphasis on satellite monitoring and remote sensing technology used in prediction and assessments. The chapters presented in the book intend to stimulate thinking and further research in the field of natural hazards disaster management.

Volcanic Seismology

Author: Paolo Gasparini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642770088
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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For many centuries people living on volcanoes have known that the outset of seismic activity is often a forerunner of a volcanic eruption. This understand ing allowed people living close to the sites of the Mt. Nuovo 1538 eruption at Campi Flegrei, Italy, and of the Mt. Usu 1663 eruption, in Hokkaido, Japan (to quote only two examples) to flee before the eruptions started. During the second half of the 19th century seismographs were installed on some volcanoes, and the link between seismic and eruptive activity started to be assessed on a firmer scientific basis. The first systematic observations of the correlations existing between seismic activity and volcanic eruptions were probably those carried out at Mt. Vesuvius by Luigi Palmieri in 1856. Palmieri was the Director of Osservatorio Vesuviano and built an electromagnetic seismograph with the aim of "making visible the smallest ground motions by recording them on paper and indicating direction, intensity and duration". He was able to show the relationship between earthquakes and the different phases of volcanic activity. He identified the harmonic tremor which he indicated was a precursor of volcanic activity: "the characteristic feature of the ground mo tions preceding eruption is its continuity . . . (before the eruption of 1861) the electromagnetic seismograph began to show a continuous tremor". The Palmieri seismograph was also utilized in Japan until 1883, when it was replaced by the new Gray-Milne seismographs, and, later, by the Omori in struments.

Geological Monitoring

Author: Rob Young
Publisher: Geological Society of America
ISBN: 0813760321
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Geologic Monitoring is a practical, nontechnical guide for land managers, educators, and the public that synthesizes representative methods for monitoring short-term and long-term change in geologic features and landscapes. A prestigious group of subject-matter experts has carefully selected methods for monitoring sand dunes, caves and karst, rivers, geothermal features, glaciers, nearshore marine features, beaches and marshes, paleontological resources, permafrost, seismic activity, slope movements, and volcanic features and processes. Each chapter has an overview of the resource; summarizes features that could be monitored; describes methods for monitoring each feature ranging from low-cost, low-technology methods (that could be used for school groups) to higher cost, detailed monitoring methods requiring a high level of expertise; and presents one or more targeted case studies."--Publisher's description.