Ecological Biomarkers

Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880530
Format: PDF
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Does a change, which affects a few biological macro-molecules, some cells, or a few individuals within a population, have any ecological significance that would allow the prediction of deleterious effects at higher levels of biological organization, namely the population, community, and ultimately the ecosystem? With contributions from experts in the field, Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects explores how biomarkers can be used to predict effects farther down the chain. It presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the methodology of biomarkers and its contribution to ecological risk assessment. This book describes the core biomarkers currently used in environmental research concerned with biological monitoring, biomarkers which correspond to the defences developed by living organisms in response to contaminants in their environment, and biomarkers that reveal biological damage resulting from contaminant stressors. It examines the efficacy of lysosomal biomarkers, immunotoxicity effects, behavioral disturbances, energy metabolism impairments, endocrine disruption measures, and genotoxicity as all indicative of probable toxic effects at higher biological levels. It is time to revisit the biological responses most ecologically relevant in the diagnosis of the health status of an aquatic environment well before it becomes unmanageable. Biomarkers provide a real possibility of delivering an easily measured marker at a simple level of biological organization that is predictably linked to a potentially ecologically significant effect at higher levels of biological organization. The text explores the latest knowledge and thinking on how to use biomarkers as tools for the assessment of environmental health and management.

Use of Biomarkers in Assessing Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Pollutants

Author: Curtis C. Travis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489920528
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Biological markers (biomarkers) are useful tools for understanding the nature and extent of human exposure and risk from environmental toxicants. Biomarkers are classified into three basic categories: exposure, effect, or susceptibility. A marker of exposure is the product of the interaction between a target cell or molecule and a foreign substance (NAS, 1989). These markers can be used to determine the biologically effective dose necessary to elicit a particular physiological change in an organism. A marker of effect is a biochemical or physiological change in an organism that can predict the onset of adverse health effects resulting from a given exposure. Lastly, markers of susceptibility act as indicators of an inherent or acquired tendency of an organism to experience an adverse health effect (NAS, 1989). These markers are already used to detect a variety of diseases and show great promise for developing a better understanding of the mechanicisms of disease. Additionally, biomarkers can be used to establish a more rational basis for quantitative risk extrapolation between species, as weIl as to obtain more precise estimates of the time of critical exposure. These markers can also prove helpful in identifying potentially damaging exposures before the onset of adverse health effects. Biomarkers serve as a valuable exposure assessment tool because they take into account exposure from all routes and integrate exposure from all sources. They have the potential to yield better risk estimates than current monitoring and modeling protocols. In lune 1992, Dr. Travis and Dr.

Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination

Author: 0 McCarthy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351087169
Format: PDF, Docs
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How can biological markers help assess and predict human health risks? Find out the answers to this question and others in this timely new book examining the use of biological markers in animals and plants for evaluating the ecological and health effects of environmental contamination. The book explains the concept of environmental sentinels, presents example of field studies and discusses the utility of biomarkers within a risk analysis paradigm. Anyone who needs to know how to assess and predict environmental contamination should consider this book essential reading.

Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology

Author: Kavindra Kumar Kesari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319462482
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a valuable contribution to the debate about the harmful effects of environmental toxicants on human health, which is a growing concern in the 21st century. Complementary chapters decipher the phenomena and highlight the latest developments in environmental toxicology, providing readers with a comprehensive overview of environmental toxicology and human health. Since the toxicants in question are not only chemical or biological in nature, but also include man-made electromagnetic fields, the book explores in detail multidisciplinary approaches to environmental toxicology, with a focus on the following five aspects: 1. The effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on human health proposed mechanisms and biological effects and measures). 2. An overview of nanotoxicity, nanomedicine and cancer research. 3. A bio-computational approach to the molecular interaction of environmental carcinogens with DNA. 4. The toxicology of environmental pollutants in the air, dust, soil, water and natural toxins in the environment: exposure and health. 5. Social insects as environmental indicators of ecotoxicological effects in different ecosystems. The book analyzes the carcinogenic, mutagenic, genotoxic and neurotoxic effects of both anthropogenic and natural toxins present in water, soil, air and our surroundings in the form of electro-pollution or electro-smog.

Biomarkers

Author: David B. Peakall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642846319
Format: PDF, ePub
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Biological markers used to assess the effects of environmental pollution have attracted considerable attention from regulatory agencies and are currently under evaluation at a number of research facilities throughout the world. However promising a biomarker-based biomonitoring approach may be, the development of this concept is complicated by a range of technical issues. This book provides a conceptional framework for research and application of biomarkers. International experts on biomonitoring have formulated a unified strategy for the development and validation of biomarkers in assessing environmental health as well as appropriate protocols for their implementation and interpretation in a biological monitoring program.

Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128011769
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES

Author: Dr. Akanimo Odon and Dr. Sam Guodadia
Publisher: Author House
ISBN: 9781456784454
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The African Environmental Perspectives (AEP) is a publication of Academia for Green Africa (AFGA). AFGA is an initiative of Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria and Envirofly Group, United Kingdom that identifies the role of academic institutions in Africa towards meeting and addressing the current global challenges of climate Change and the Environment. Conceived in early 2010 as a follow up to the deliberations of the last Climate Change Summit in Copenhagen, this initiative is strategic in bridging the environmental competence gaps currently in Africa using strategic partnerships and networks with established environmental academic and corporate institutions and bodies globally. This is the first volume publication made up of a compilation of environmental-inclined speeches and presentations at the last Academia for Green Africa International Conference that took place at the Benson Idahosa University, Nigeria in October 2010.