Economic and Political Contention in Comparative Perspective

Author: Maria Kousis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317260848
Format: PDF, Mobi
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European and American specialists in economic and political processes move beyond earlier debates to look seriously, systematically, and innovatively at social change and protest, with particular attention to the influence of economic change and variation on contentious politics. The essays take up two widely recognized but much contested questions in contentious politics: how threats and opportunities faced by potential participants in joint political action affect the likelihood, character, and consequences of that action; and, how economic change and variation either a) constitute significant political threats and opportunities or b) shape responses to political threats and opportunities. Contributors: Maria Kousis, Charles Tilly, Marc Giugni, Julie Berclaz, Marc Steinberg, Jeffery Broadbent, Klaus Eder, John K. Glenn, Dieter Rucht, Richard Hogan, Maryjane Osa, Cristina Corduneanu-Husi.

Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements

Author: Doug McAdam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521485166
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Social movements such as environmentalism, feminism, nationalism, and the anti-immigration movement figure prominently in the modern world. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements examines social movements in a comparative perspective, focusing on the role of ideology and beliefs, mechanisms of mobilization, and how politics shapes the development and outcomes of movements. It includes case studies of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the United States, Italy, the Netherlands, and West Germany.

Diasporas and Homeland Conflicts

Author: Bahar Baser
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317151305
Format: PDF
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As violent conflicts become increasingly intra-state rather than inter-state, international migration has rendered them increasingly transnational, as protagonists from each side find themselves in new countries of residence. In spite of leaving their homeland, the grievances and grudges that existed between them are not forgotten and can be passed to the next generation. This book explores the extension of homeland conflicts into transnational space amongst diaspora groups, with particular attention to the interactions between second-generation migrants. Comparative in approach, Diasporas and Homeland Conflicts focuses on the tensions that exist between Kurdish and Turkish populations in Sweden and Germany, examining the effects of hostland policies and politics on the construction, shaping or elimination of homeland conflicts. Drawing on extensive interview material with members of diasporic communities, this book sheds fresh light on the influences exercised on conflict dynamics by state policies on migrant incorporation and multiculturalism, as well as structures of migrant organizations. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, political science and international studies with interests in migration and diaspora, integration and transnational conflict.

American Difference

Author: Lori M. Poloni-Staudinger
Publisher: CQ Press
ISBN: 1483344363
Format: PDF, ePub
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Examining democracies from a comparative perspective helps us better understand why politics—or “who gets what, when, and how”—differs among democracies. In American Difference: American Politics from a Comparative Perspective, authors Lori M. Poloni-Staudinger and Michael R. Wolf take the reader through different aspects of democracy—political culture, institutions, interest groups, political parties and elections—and explore how the US is both different from and similar to other democracies. Used in conjunction with a textbook for courses in Introduction to American Politics, Introduction to Comparative Politics, or Introduction to Politics, this book will provide additional context and deepen students’ understanding of key political concepts.

The Dynamics of Radicalization

Author: Eitan Y. Alimi
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199937729
Format: PDF, ePub
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"The book comparatively investigates the processes of radicalization, focusing on questions of how and when such processes unfold, rather than on why they happen in the first place. Alimi, Bosi, and Demetriou argue that processes of radicalization develop primarily through the interplay of three specific mechanisms: "competition for power" among movement actors; "threat/opportunity spirals" between the movement and its political environment; and "outbidding" between movement actors and state security forces. Each arena or mechanism affects and is affected by the other two, creating a multilayered pathway of radicalization. Using the "most different case" logic, the authors argue their theory through three case studies: the Red Brigades in Italy (1968-1980), the Greek Cypriot Enosis-EOKA (1945-1960), and the Al Qaeda/Sunni-led Salafi Transnational Jihad Movement (1984-2001). Without losing sight of the significant differences between the cases, or of the way in which they influence the particular sequence of the process, the book provides an empirically proven and widely applicable analytic framework for understanding how political processes and different contexts drive radicalization"--

Neoliberalism Accountability and Reform Failures in Emerging Markets

Author: Luigi Manzetti
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271059648
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The agenda of neoliberal market reform known as the Washington Consensus, which was meant to turn around the economies of developing and postcommunist countries and provide the bedrock of economic success on which stable democracies could be built, has largely proved to be a failure, with Russia and many Latin American countries like Argentina left in severe economic crisis by the end of the 1990s. Some proponents of neoliberal reform, such as Anne Krueger, have attributed this failure to the piecemeal and incomplete implementation of reform measures, while others, including Nobel Prize economist and former World Bank vice president Joseph Stiglitz, have pointed to technical flaws in the policies. While both of these assessments focus narrowly on economic factors, Luigi Manzetti highlights the crucial importance of political institutions and processes to a fully adequate explanation. His argument is that the ideology of neoliberal reform, rooted in the theories of Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman, assumed political checks and balances that did not exist in many of these countries undergoing market reform, and that only by taking political accountability as an influential variable in the equation for success can we really understand what happened. Where accountability was weak, patterns of corruption, collusion, and patronage worked to undermine the intended aims of market reform. Manzetti uses both large N statistical analyses and small N case studies (of Argentina, Chile, and Russia) to provide empirical evidence for his argument.

Dynamics of Contention

Author: Doug McAdam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521011877
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Dissatisfied with the compartmentalization of studies concerning strikes, wars, revolutions, social movements, and other forms of political struggle, McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly identify causal mechanisms and processes that recur across a wide range of contentious politics. Critical of the static, single-actor models (including their own) that have prevailed in the field, they shift the focus of analysis to dynamic interaction. Doubtful that large, complex series of events such as revolutions and social movements conform to general laws, they break events into smaller episodes, then identify recurrent mechanisms and proceses within them. Dynamics of Contention examines and compares eighteen contentious episodes drawn from many different parts of the world since the French Revolution, probing them for consequential and widely applicable mechanisms, for example, brokerage, category formation, and elite defection. The episodes range from nineteenth-century nationalist movements to contemporary Muslim-Hindu conflict to the Tiananmen crisis of 1989 to disintegration of the Soviet Union. The authors spell out the implications of their approach for explanation of revolutions, nationalism, and democratization, then lay out a more general program for study of contentious episodes wherever and whenever they occur.

Why

Author: Charles Tilly
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400837786
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Why? is a book about the explanations we give and how we give them--a fascinating look at the way the reasons we offer every day are dictated by, and help constitute, social relationships. Written in an easy-to-read style by distinguished social historian Charles Tilly, the book explores the manner in which people claim, establish, negotiate, repair, rework, or terminate relations with others through the reasons they give. Tilly examines a number of different types of reason giving. For example, he shows how an air traffic controller would explain the near miss of two aircraft in several different ways, depending upon the intended audience: for an acquaintance at a cocktail party, he might shrug it off by saying "This happens all the time," or offer a chatty, colloquial rendition of what transpired; for a colleague at work, he would venture a longer, more technical explanation, and for a formal report for his division head he would provide an exhaustive, detailed account. Tilly demonstrates that reasons fall into four different categories: Convention: "I'm sorry I spilled my coffee; I'm such a klutz." Narratives: "My friend betrayed me because she was jealous of my sister." Technical cause-effect accounts: "A short circuit in the ignition system caused the engine rotors to fail." Codes or workplace jargon: "We can't turn over the records. We're bound by statute 369." Tilly illustrates his topic by showing how a variety of people gave reasons for the 9/11 attacks. He also demonstrates how those who work with one sort of reason frequently convert it into another sort. For example, a doctor might understand an illness using the technical language of biochemistry, but explain it to his patient, who knows nothing of biochemistry, by using conventions and stories. Replete with sparkling anecdotes about everyday social experiences (including the author's own), Why? makes the case for stories as one of the great human inventions.

The BRICs and Emerging Economies in Comparative Perspective

Author: Uwe Becker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134647034
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the past ten to twenty years the global political economy picture has dramatically changed with the emergence of the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and, notably, China (BRICs) as big players and competitors of the advanced economies in the West and Eastern Asia. The book comparatively analyses institutional change in the BRICs. This book examines the BRICs by analysing their institutional development, their main continuities and changes, and their differences. It provides a comparative analysis of the political economies of the BRICs, but also considers South Africa and Turkey. The contributors provide a systematic comparison of the state-economy and the capital-labour relationships and explore whether they liberalized or followed a specific trajectory. The book also addresses debates on the varieties of capitalism and explores whether the emerging economies fit into the dichotomous construction of liberal and coordinated capitalism or whether they require a more differentiated typological approach. Moving away from rigid conceptions and the static classification of political economies as either liberal or coordinated and presenting a more open approach, The BRICs and Emerging Economies in Comparative Perspective will be vital reading for students and scholars of comparative political economy, international relations, capitalism, the BRICs, emerging markets and the role of the state in the economy.