Ecotoxicology

Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420005011
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Integrating ecotoxicological concepts across a range of hierarchical levels, Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment focuses on the paradigms and fundamental themes of ecotoxicology while providing the detail and practical application of concepts often found in more specialized books. By synthesizing the best qualities of a general textbook and the narrower, more specific scope of a technical reference, the authors create a volume flexible enough to cover a variety of instructional vantages and thorough enough to engender a respect for the importance of understanding and integrating concepts from all levels of biological organization. Divided into six sections, the book builds progressively from the biomolecular level toward a discussion of effects on the global biosphere. It begins with the fundamentals of hierarchical ecotoxicology and vantages for exploring ecotoxicological issues. The second section introduces organismal ecotoxicology and examines effects to biochemicals, cells, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms, and bioaccumulation and bioavailability of contaminants. Population ecotoxicology, section three, places the discussion in the larger context of entire populations by analyzing epidemiology, population dynamics, demographics, genetics, and natural selection. Section four encompasses issues of community ecotoxicology. This section presents biotic and abiotic factors influencing communities, biomonitoring and community response, and the application of multimetric and multivariate approaches. Section five evaluates the entire ecosystem by describing assessment approaches, identifying patterns, analyzing relationships between species, and reviewing the effects of global atmospheric stressors. A detailed conclusion integrating the concepts discussed and promoting a balanced assessment of the overarching paradigms rounds out the coverage in section six.

Ecotoxicology

Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566701273
Format: PDF, ePub
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In Ecotoxicology: A Hierarchical Treatment, 20 recognized experts from around the world identify and present the fundamental concepts of ecotoxicology at the biological level central to their own research. Superbly organized, the book proceeds sequentially by chapter from the chemical to cellular to the ecosystem level, making it easy to read, understand, and use. Specifically, each author identifies important hypotheses, paradigms, "false" paradigms, or new techniques in his or her research area. As a result, this book is a stimulating progressive treatment of ecotoxicology at all levels of organization. Each chapter draws mechanistic interpretation from the next lower level and attempts to predict effects at the next higher level. This innovative approach underscores ecotoxicology's potential for development into a new discipline and makes Ecotoxicology: A Hierarchical Treatment the definitive reference at this crucial juncture.

Community Ecotoxicology

Author: William H. Clements
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470855142
Format: PDF, Docs
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Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxicants on ecological systems. Ecological effects of contaminants may occur at several levels of biological organisation, from individual organisms to the entire biosphere. Communities consist of interacting populations that overlap in time and space. Thus, community ecotoxicology is concerned with effects of contaminants on communities. This is one of a series of five books that will provide a comprehensive treatment of field ecotoxicology, it provides important insights into how contaminants affect the distribution and abundance of organisms in nature. * Both authors are well known highly respected scientists in the field. * The first book to be dedicated to 'community ecotoxicology.'

Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology Third Edition

Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439883122
Format: PDF, ePub
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Each year ecotoxicological problems become increasingly complex and encompass broader spatial and temporal scales. Our practical understanding must evolve accordingly to maintain an acceptable quality of life. Fully revised and expanded to reflect new developments, the third edition of Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology provides a broad overview of the field that ranges from molecular to global issues. New in the third edition: Revised chapter on contaminant types and sources Expanded by 100 pages beyond the second edition More integration of contaminant sources and fate Color graphics including fifteen color insert images New vignettes contributed by international experts Appendices describing current Chinese and Australian legislation in addition to U.S. and EU legislation The text details key environmental contaminants, explores their fates in the biosphere, and discusses bioaccumulation and the effects of contaminants at increasing levels of ecological organization. It also covers regulatory aspects of the field and discusses key Australian, U.S., European, and Chinese legislation and policies. Vignettes written by experts illustrate key themes or highlight especially pertinent examples. Instructors can present the core concepts of each chapter and use the vignettes for student-lead discussions. The time has passed when it was sufficient for the ecotoxicologist to focus only on new human toxicants as they appear and then explore how they impact nonhuman species. Keeping this in mind, the textbook extends the discussion of ecotoxicants beyond the conventional ecosystem to include landscape, regional, and biospheric topics. This extension imparts a perspective as encompassing as the problems facing us today.

Quantitative Ecotoxicology Second Edition

Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439835659
Format: PDF, Docs
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Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author’s previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment. Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere—and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What’s New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques R script examples by Eduard Szöcs (University Koblenz-Landau) available at http://edild.github.io/blog/categories/quantitative-ecotoxicology-with-r/

The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence

Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128096454
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence: Natural Science, Statistics, Psychology, and Sociology examines how toxicologists and environmental professionals come to understand and make decisions about possible harm from pollutants. Drawing on concepts and techniques from the natural, social and mathematical sciences, the book emphasizes how pollutant-related evidence is gathered, assessed, communicated and applied in decision-making. Each chapter begins with a real-world example before exploring fundamental cognitive, social, statistical or natural science concepts to explain the opening example. Methods from other disciplines for recognizing, reducing or removing the influence of impediments in wise decision-making are highlighted in each chapter. Misreading evidence by the scientific community, and miscommunication to regulators and the public, remain major impediments to wise action in pollution issues. Which evidence comes to dominate the dialogue among scientists, regulators and decision makers depends on social and scientific dynamics. Yet psychological and sociological factors that influence the movement of evidence through scientific communities to regulators receive cursory discussion by professionals unfamiliar with the sociology literature. Toxicologists, environmental scientists, psychologists and professionals and students across the sciences will find the book useful for understanding how evidence is generated, assessed and communicated in their own fields. Includes groundbreaking research synthesizing information from across the sciences to understand the decision-making process Provides real life examples and uses theoretical concepts to analyze them in clear, direct language Encourages critical thinking about complex problems

Mixture Toxicity

Author: Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439830093
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Ecotoxicology

Author: Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315296357
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.

Algal Ecology

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080526942
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Algae are an important component of aquatic benthic ecosystems because they reflect the health of their environment through their density, abundance, and diversity. This comprehensive and authoritative text is divided into three sections to offer complete coverage of the discussion in this field. The first section introduces the locations of benthic algae in different ecosystems, like streams, large rivers, lakes, and other aquatic habitats. The second section is devoted to the various factors, both biotic and abiotic, that affect benthic freshwater algae. The final section of the book focuses on the role played by algae in a variety of complex freshwater ecosystems. As concern over environmental health escalates, the keystone and pivotal role played by algae is becoming more apparent. This volume in the Aquatic Ecology Series represents an important compilation of the latest research on the crucial niche occupied by algae in aquatic ecosystems. Presents algae as the important player in relation to environmental health Prepared by leading authorities in the field Includes comprehensive treatment of the functions of benthic algae as well as the factors that affect these important aquatic organisms Acts as an important reference for anyone interested in understanding and managing freshwater ecosystems

Analysis and Risk of Nanomaterials in Environmental and Food Samples

Author: Damià Barceló
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444563288
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The application of nanotechnology in different consumer products has delivered new products with highly desirable properties, but at same time has opened a new window for a wide group of emerging contaminants and a new type of human exposure which needs to be assessed. Most of the current human toxicological information on nanomaterials comes from nano-sized particles in air, and their effects via inhalation. Other routes of human exposure, such as water and food, and the effects on human health and the environment have been less studied. It is the recent research in these areas that is highlighted here in one of the first books covering the analysis and ecotoxicological evaluation of nanomaterials in food and the environment, with both matrices being of considerable interest. In addition to providing a global summary of recent research, this book shows how widely used chromatographic and spectroscopic methods can be added to the analytical arsenal of microscopic techniques that have commonly been used to characterize nanomaterials. Describes the analytical techniques used to characterize nanomaterials and their applications in environmental or food samples Includes analysis and ecotoxicological evaluation of nanomaterials in food and environmental matrices Takes a detailed look at the research on emerging fields of human exposure to nanomaterials and their environmental risks