Education Policy and Equal Opportunity in Japan

Author: Akito Okada
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857452681
Format: PDF, Docs
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In many societies today, educational aims or goals are commonly characterized in terms of "equality," "equal opportunity," "equal access" or "equal rights," the underlying assumption being that "equality" in some form is an intelligible and sensible educational ideal. Yet, there are different views and lively debates about what sort of equality should be pursued; in particular, the issue of equality of educational opportunity has served as justification for much of the postwar restructuring of educational systems around the world. The author explores different interpretations of the concept of equality of educational opportunity in Japan, especially as applied to post-World War II educational policies. By focusing on the positions taken by key actors such as the major political parties, central administrative bodies, teachers' unions, and scholars, he describes how their concepts have developed over time and in what way they relate to the making of educational policy, especially in light of Japan's falling birthrate and aging society.

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Author: Robert T. Francoeur
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0826414885
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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--A completely updated one-volume edition of the 4-volume International Encyclopedia of Sexuality--Includes nearly 60 countries and places--12 not previously covered--by more than 200 authorities--It is the only reference work of its kind in any language

The Social Sciences in Modern Japan

Author: Andrew E. Barshay
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520941330
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This incisive intellectual history of Japanese social science from the 1890s to the present day considers the various forms of modernity that the processes of "development" or "rationalization" have engendered and the role social scientists have played in their emergence. Andrew E. Barshay argues that Japan, together with Germany and pre-revolutionary Russia, represented forms of developmental alienation from the Atlantic Rim symptomatic of late-emerging empires. Neither members nor colonies of the Atlantic Rim, these were independent national societies whose cultural self-image was nevertheless marked by a sense of difference. Barshay presents a historical overview of major Japanese trends and treats two of the most powerful streams of Japanese social science, one associated with Marxism, the other with Modernism (kindaishugi), whose most representative figure is the late Maruyama Masao. Demonstrating that a sense of developmental alienation shaped the thinking of social scientists in both streams, the author argues that they provided Japanese social science with moments of shared self-understanding.

Dreams of Difference

Author: Kevin Michael Doak
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520914247
Format: PDF, Docs
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From 1935 to 1945, the Japan Romantic School (Nihon Romanha), a group of major intellectuals and literary figures, explored issues concerning politics, literature, and nationalism in ways that still influence cultural discourse in Japan today. Kevin Doak's timely study is a broad critique of modernity in early twentieth-century Japan. He uses close readings and translations of texts and poems to suggest that the school's interest in romanticism stemmed from its attempt to surmount the "cultural crisis" of lost traditions. This attempt to overcome modernity eventually reduced the movement's earlier critical impulses to expressions of nationalist longing.