Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

Author: Mehmet Kanoğlu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461422418
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding of second law (exergy) efficiencies for various systems. It may serve as a reference book to the researchers in energy field. The definitions and concepts developed in the book will be explained through illustrative examples.

Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994378
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Fire Hazard Assessment of Lithium Ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

Author: Andrew Blum
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493965565
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Providing a concise overview of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery energy storage systems (ESSs), this book also presents the full-scale fire testing of 100 kilowatt hour (kWh) Li-ion battery ESSs. It details a full-scale fire testing plan to perform an assessment of Li-ion battery ESS fire hazards, developed after a thorough technical study. It documents the results of the testing plan including external and internal ignition testing, ESS positioning, temperature and heat flux measurements, pressure measurement, weather meters, and data acquisition systems. A comprehensive literature review and gap analysis reveal the current state of research into this vital aspect of energy storage. The authors cover the characteristics and hazards of Li-ion batteries, their anatomy and design, commercial and residential ESSs, historical fire incidents, and ESS codes and regulations. Researchers and professionals working in fire protection engineering, battery systems engineering, or energy storage will find this book a useful example of a fire testing plan. The results of the hazard assessment offer insights for those involved in electrical, fire, and building codes, as well as practitioners in design standards and fire testing.

A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies

Author: Walter Short
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781410221056
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies provides guidance on economic evaluation approaches, metrics, and levels of detail required, while offering a consistent basis on which analysts can perform analyses using standard assumptions and bases. It not only provides information on the primary economic measures used in economic analyses and the fundamentals of finance but also provides guidance focused on the special considerations required in the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy systems.

Fuzzy Logic Based Power Efficient Real Time Multi Core System

Author: Jameel Ahmed
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811031207
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book focuses on identifying the performance challenges involved in computer architectures, optimal configuration settings and analysing their impact on the performance of multi-core architectures. Proposing a power and throughput-aware fuzzy-logic-based reconfiguration for Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) in both simulation and real-time environments, it is divided into two major parts. The first part deals with the simulation-based power and throughput-aware fuzzy logic reconfiguration for multi-core architectures, presenting the results of a detailed analysis on the factors impacting the power consumption and performance of MPSoCs. In turn, the second part highlights the real-time implementation of fuzzy-logic-based power-efficient reconfigurable multi-core architectures for Intel and Leone3 processors.

External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems ETICS

Author: Eva Barreira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319203827
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book analyzes the hygrothermal behaviour of external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS), components that increase the thermal efficiency of buildings. Treating a topic that has largely been neglected, it explores the main cause of biological growth within ETICS. The results of two experimental test series are presented: (i) a long-term assessment of four façades covered with ETICS and (ii) an evaluation of the factors affecting the façades’ hygrothermal behaviour. Furthermore, using a previously validated numerical model, it presents a sensitivity analysis of the hygrothermal behaviour of façades coated with ETICS. It also provides a methodology to assess the surface humidification of ETICS, which combines the effect of surface condensation, wind-driven rain and the drying process (three of the most prevalent parameters influencing the surface moisture content), which can then be used as a decision-support tool. ETICS are now frequently used in Europe to improve the thermal efficiency of buildings. Despite their advantages in terms of thermal efficiency, their low cost and their ease of application, these systems are adversely affected by microbiological growth, which causes defacement of cladding. Although the thermal and mechanical performance of the system is not impaired, biological defacement has an enormous aesthetic impact, affecting the inhabitants’ living experience and restricting the full implementation of this technology. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS): An Evaluation of Hygrothermal Behaviour provides a valuable resource to engineers and architects utilizing ETICS in their work, and for researchers and students interested in the hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS. It is also intended for those employed in industry and manufacturers of ETICS.

When Trucks Stop Running

Author: Alice J. Friedemann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319263757
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
In lively and engaging language, this book describes our dependence on freight transport and its vulnerability to diminishing supplies and high prices of oil. Ships, trucks, and trains are the backbone of civilization, hauling the goods that fulfill our every need and desire. Their powerful, highly-efficient diesel combustion engines are exquisitely fine-tuned to burn petroleum-based diesel fuel. These engines and the fuels that fire them have been among the most transformative yet disruptive technologies on the planet. Although this transportation revolution has allowed many of us to fill our homes with global goods even a past emperor would envy, our era of abundance, and the freight transport system in particular, is predicated on the affordability and high energy density of a single fuel, oil. This book explores alternatives to this finite resource including other liquid fuels, truck and locomotive batteries and utility-scale energy storage technology, and various forms of renewable electricity to support electrified transport. Transportation also must adapt to other challenges: Threats from climate change, financial busts, supply-chain failure, and transportation infrastructure decay. Robert Hirsch, who wrote the “Peaking of World Oil Production” report for the U.S. Department of Energy in 2005, said that planning for peak world production must start at least 10, if not 20 years ahead of time. What little planning exists focuses mainly on how to accommodate 30 percent more economic growth while averting climate change, ignoring the possibility that we are at, or near, the end of growth. Taken for granted, the modern transportation system will not endure forever. The time is now to take a realistic and critical look at the choices ahead, and how the future of transportation may unfold.

Solar Based Hydrogen Production Systems

Author: Ibrahim Dincer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461474310
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding of second law (exergy) efficiencies for various systems. It may serve as a reference book to the researchers in energy field. The definitions and concepts developed in the book will be explained through illustrative examples.

The Physics of Stocks and Flows of Energy Systems

Author: Hassan Qudrat-Ullah
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319248294
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Using a system dynamics approach, this book illustrates the physics of fundamental accumulation processes (stocks and flows) across the demand and supply sectors of energy systems. Examples of system dynamics simulation models are presented where these accumulation processes are driving the behavior of the system. Based on these modeling efforts, two cases (the socio-economic and environmental implications of the energy policy of Pakistan and the dynamics of green power in Ontario, Canada) are analyzed and discussed. By studying the dynamics of the fundamental structures of an energy system, the reader gains an enhanced understanding of the stocks and flows of complex systems as well as their role in energy policy. This book is of use to managers and practitioners, teachers, researchers, and students of design and assessment of policy making for complex, dynamic energy systems.

Electrical Power Unit Commitment

Author: Yuping Huang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493967681
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This volume in the SpringerBriefs in Energy series offers a systematic review of unit commitment (UC) problems in electrical power generation. It updates texts written in the late 1990s and early 2000s by including the fundamentals of both UC and state-of-the-art modeling as well as solution algorithms and highlighting stochastic models and mixed-integer programming techniques. The UC problems are mostly formulated as mixed-integer linear programs, although there are many variants. A number of algorithms have been developed for, or applied to, UC problems, including dynamic programming, Lagrangian relaxation, general mixed-integer programming algorithms, and Benders decomposition. In addition the book discusses the recent trends in solving UC problems, especially stochastic programming models, and advanced techniques to handle large numbers of integer- decision variables due to scenario propagation