Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

Author: Mehmet Kanoğlu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461422418
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding of second law (exergy) efficiencies for various systems. It may serve as a reference book to the researchers in energy field. The definitions and concepts developed in the book will be explained through illustrative examples.

Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994378
Format: PDF
Download Now
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficient Cooling of Nonresidential Buildings

Author: Doreen E. Kalz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319045822
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book supports HVAC planners in reducing the cooling energy demand, improving the indoor environment and designing more cost-effective building concepts. High performance buildings have shown that it is possible to go clearly beyond the energy requirements of existing legislation and obtaining good thermal comfort. However, there is still a strong uncertainty in day-to-day practice due to the lack of legislative regulations for mixed-mode buildings which are neither only naturally ventilated nor fully air-conditioned, but use a mix of different low-energy cooling techniques. Based on the findings from monitoring campaigns (long-term measurements in combination with field studies on thermal comfort), simulation studies, and a comprehensive review on existing standards and guidelines, this book acts as a commonly accessible knowledge pool for passive and low-energy cooling techniques.

The Chinese Oil Industry

Author: Lianyong Feng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994106
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The Chinese Oil Industry: History and Future presents a wealth of tables and figures with new data on Chinese fossil fuel production and consumption, together with a peak oil model to forecast future trends in energy supply and demand. Energy experts in China and the United States provide you with a unique overview of the entire Chinese oil industry. The authors discuss trends in production and consumption of global significance through to the middle of the 21st century, including the energy returned on energy invested (EROI) for China’s oil and gas. The role of oil in the industrialization of China is described as are four phases in the history of the Chinese oil industry. Detailed coverage of resources and exploration, pipeline development, refining and marketing, petroleum and natural gas pricing policies, and international cooperation is followed by consideration of conservation, renewable energy, and environmental impact. The authors also address the importance of coal and the probable future of coal production. - Offers a comprehensive view of the Chinese oil industry - Presents new and previously unpublished data - Covers history and future trends in production and consumption - Introduces a new peak oil model for China - Discusses EROI trend of oil and natural gas and its consequences for the Chinese economy - Written from an objective viewpoint by leading energy experts

Regenerative and Positive Impact Architecture

Author: Shady Attia
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319667181
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book is a guide to energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment in high-performance buildings projects. It compares four state-of-the-art buildings to examine the steps needed for a transition from negative impact reduction architecture to positive impact regenerative architecture, utilizing life cycle analysis. The book provides a solid grounding in the areas of energy-efficient building and building materials life-cycle assessment, discussing carbon efficiency within a wider context that includes its technical, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions and covers the key areas for green buildings performance (operational and embodied energy). The analysis and comparison of four case studies of state-of-art modern building projects in Europe and North America serve as inspiring examples for architects and building professionals in the fields of high performance buildings, ecological materials and carbon efficiency.

A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies

Author: Walter Short
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781410221056
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies provides guidance on economic evaluation approaches, metrics, and levels of detail required, while offering a consistent basis on which analysts can perform analyses using standard assumptions and bases. It not only provides information on the primary economic measures used in economic analyses and the fundamentals of finance but also provides guidance focused on the special considerations required in the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy systems.

Energy aware Scheduling on Multiprocessor Platforms

Author: Dawei Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461452244
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Multiprocessor platforms play important roles in modern computing systems, and appear in various applications, ranging from energy-limited hand-held devices to large data centers. As the performance requirements increase, energy-consumption in these systems also increases significantly. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS), which allows processors to dynamically adjust the supply voltage and the clock frequency to operate on different power/energy levels, is considered an effective way to achieve the goal of energy-saving. This book surveys existing works that have been on energy-aware task scheduling on DVFS multiprocessor platforms. Energy-aware scheduling problems are intrinsically optimization problems, the formulations of which greatly depend on the platform and task models under consideration. Thus, Energy-aware Scheduling on Multiprocessor Platforms covers current research on this topic and classifies existing works according to two key standards, namely, homogeneity/heterogeneity of multiprocessor platforms and the task types considered. Under this classification, other sub-issues are also included, such as, slack reclamation, fixed/dynamic priority scheduling, partition-based/global scheduling, and application-specific power consumption, etc.

Power to Gas Technology and Business Models

Author: Markus Lehner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319039954
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Increased production of energy from renewable sources leads to a need for both new and enhanced capacities for energy transmission and intermediate storage. The book first compares different available storage options and then introduces the power-to-gas concept in a comprehensive overview of the technology. The state of the art, advancements, and future requirements for both water electrolysis and methanation are described. The integration of renewable hydrogen and methane into the gas grid is discussed in terms of the necessary technological measures to be taken. Because the power-to-gas system is very flexible, providing numerous specific applications for different targets within the energy sector, possible business models are presented on the basis of various process chains taking into account different plant scales and operating scenarios. The influence of the scale and the type of the integration of the technology into the existing energy network is highlighted with an emphasis on economic consequences. Finally, legal aspects of the operation and integration of the power-to-gas system are discussed.

When Trucks Stop Running

Author: Alice J. Friedemann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319263757
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
In lively and engaging language, this book describes our dependence on freight transport and its vulnerability to diminishing supplies and high prices of oil. Ships, trucks, and trains are the backbone of civilization, hauling the goods that fulfill our every need and desire. Their powerful, highly-efficient diesel combustion engines are exquisitely fine-tuned to burn petroleum-based diesel fuel. These engines and the fuels that fire them have been among the most transformative yet disruptive technologies on the planet. Although this transportation revolution has allowed many of us to fill our homes with global goods even a past emperor would envy, our era of abundance, and the freight transport system in particular, is predicated on the affordability and high energy density of a single fuel, oil. This book explores alternatives to this finite resource including other liquid fuels, truck and locomotive batteries and utility-scale energy storage technology, and various forms of renewable electricity to support electrified transport. Transportation also must adapt to other challenges: Threats from climate change, financial busts, supply-chain failure, and transportation infrastructure decay. Robert Hirsch, who wrote the “Peaking of World Oil Production” report for the U.S. Department of Energy in 2005, said that planning for peak world production must start at least 10, if not 20 years ahead of time. What little planning exists focuses mainly on how to accommodate 30 percent more economic growth while averting climate change, ignoring the possibility that we are at, or near, the end of growth. Taken for granted, the modern transportation system will not endure forever. The time is now to take a realistic and critical look at the choices ahead, and how the future of transportation may unfold.

Energy Efficient Area Coverage for Intruder Detection in Sensor Networks

Author: Shibo He
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319046489
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This Springer Brief presents recent research results on area coverage for intruder detection from an energy-efficient perspective. These results cover a variety of topics, including environmental surveillance and security monitoring. The authors also provide the background and range of applications for area coverage and elaborate on system models such as the formal definition of area coverage and sensing models. Several chapters focus on energy-efficient intruder detection and intruder trapping under the well-known binary sensing model, along with intruder trapping under the probabilistic sensing model. The brief illustrates efficient algorithms rotate the duty of each sensor to prolong the network lifetime and ensure intruder trapping performance. The brief concludes with future directions of the field. Designed for researchers and professionals working with wireless sensor networks, the brief also provides a wide range of applications which are also valuable for advanced-level students interested in efficiency and networking.