Advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy

Author: T. Sakurai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642569498
Format: PDF, Kindle
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There have been many books published on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related subjects since Dr. Cerd Binnig and Dr. Heinrich Rohrer invented STM in 1982 and AFM in 1986 at IBM Research Center in Zurich, Switzerland. These two techniques, STM and AFM, now form the core of what has come to be called the 'scanning probe microscopy (SPM)' family. SPM is not just the most powerful microscope for scientists to image atoms on surfaces, but is also becoming an indispensable tool for manipulating atoms and molecules to construct man-made materials and devices. Its impact has been felt in various fields, from surface physics and chemistry to nano-mechanics, nano-electronics and medical science. Its influence will surely extend further as the years go by, beyond the reach of our present imagination, and new research applications will continue to emerge. This book, therefore, is not intended to be a comprehensive review or textbook on SPM. Its aim is to cover only a selected part of the active re search fields of SPM and related topics in which I have been directly involved over the years. These include the basic principles of STM and AFM, and their applications to fullerene film growth, SiC surface reconstructions, MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) growth of CaAs, atomic scale manipulation of Si surfaces and meso scopic work function.

Learning on the Shop Floor

Author: Bert De Munck
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845453411
Format: PDF
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Apprenticeship or vocational training is a subject of lively debate. Economic historians tend to see apprenticeship as a purely economic phenomenon, as an 'incomplete contract' in need of legal and institutional enforcement mechanisms. The contributors to this volume have adopted a broader perspective. They regard learning on the shop floor as a complex social and cultural process, to be situated in an ever-changing historical context. The results are surprising. The authors convincingly show that research on apprenticeship and learning on the shop floor is intimately associated with migration patterns, family economy and household strategies, gender perspectives, urban identities and general educational and pedagogical contexts.

Before the Unions

Author: Catharina Lis
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521479547
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume examines a wide variety of collective and organized labour movements in what is arguably a distinct period in labour history. The approach is a comparative one, looking particularly at the United Kingdom, Germany, France and the Low Countries, but also at Western Europe in general.

Craft Guilds in the Early Modern Low Countries

Author: Catharina Lis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351947923
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the half millennium of their existence, guilds in the Low Countries played a highly significant role in shaping the societies of which they were a part. One key aspect that has been identified in recent historical research to explain the survival of the guilds for such a long time is the guilds' continued adaptability to changing circumstances. This idea of flexibility is the point of departure for the essays in this volume, which sheds new light on the corporate system and identifies its various features and regional variances. The contributors explore the interrelations between economic organisations and political power in late medieval and early modern towns, and address issues of gender, religion and social welfare in the context of the guilds. This cohesive and focussed volume will provide a stimulus for renewed interest and further research in this area. It will appeal to scholars and students with an interest in early modern economic, social and cultural history in particular, but will also be valuable to those researching into political, religious and gender history.

Electromagnetics in Biology

Author: Makoto Kato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431279148
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book will serve as an ideal guide to the relatively new and complex field of bioelectromagnetics for students and researchers interested in the interaction of biological systems and electromagnetic fields. Coverage details:(1) biological responses of human and animals, both in vivo and in vitro methodologies, to magnetic and/or electromagnetic field exposure, (2) characteristics of effective fields, (3) hypotheses to explain possible mechanisms of interaction between the fields and cells, and (4) induced current in ELF and induced heat in RF fields as key interaction mechanisms.

Localized Waves

Author: Hugo E. Hernández-Figueroa
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470168974
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first book on Localized Waves—a subject of phenomenal worldwide research with important applications from secure communications to medicine Localized waves—also known as non-diffractive waves—are beams and pulses capable of resisting diffraction and dispersion over long distances even in non-guiding media. Predicted to exist in the early 1970s and obtained theoretically and experimentally as solutions to the wave equations starting in 1992, localized waves now garner intense worldwide research with applications in all fields where a role is played by a wave equation, from electromagnetism to acoustics and quantum physics. In the electromagnetics areas, they are paving the way, for instance, to ubiquitous secure communications in the range of millimeter waves, terahertz frequencies, and optics. At last, the localized waves with an envelope at rest are expected to have important applications especially in medicine. Localized Waves brings together the world's most productive researchers in the field to offer a well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments in this new and exciting subject. Composed of thirteen chapters, this dynamic volume: Presents a thorough review of the theoretical foundation and historical aspects of localized waves Explores the interconnections of the subject with other technologies and scientific areas Analyzes the effect of arbitrary anisotropies on both continuous-wave and pulsed non-diffracting fields Describes the physical nature and experimental implementation of localized waves Provides a general overview of wave localization, for example in photonic crystals, which have received increasing attention in recent years Localized Waves is the first book to cover this emerging topic, making it an indispensable resource in particular for researchers in electromagnetics, acoustics, fundamental physics, and free-space communications, while also serving as a requisite text for graduate students.