Electoral Rules and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Cynthia McClintock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190879750
Format: PDF, ePub
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During Latin America's third democratic wave, a majority of countries adopted a runoff rule for the election of the president, effectively dampening plurality voting, opening the political arena to new parties, and assuring the public that the president will never have anything less than majority support. In a region in which undemocratic political parties were common and have often been dominated by caudillos, cautious naysayers have voiced concerns about the runoff process, arguing that a proliferation of new political parties vying for power is a sign of inferior democracy. This book is the first rigorous assessment of the implications of runoff versus plurality rules throughout Latin America, and demonstrates that, in contrast to early scholarly skepticism about runoff, it has been positive for democracy in the region. Primarily through qualitative analysis for each country, the author argues that, indeed, an important advantage of runoff is the greater openness of the political arena to new parties--at the same time that measures can be taken to inhibit party proliferation. In this context, it is also the first volume to address whether or not a runoff rule with a reduced threshold (for example, 40% with a 10-point lead) is a felicitous compromise between majority runoff and plurality. The book considers the potential for the superiority of runoff to travel beyond Latin America--in particular, and rather provocatively, to the United States.

Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521576147
Format: PDF, Kindle
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David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.

Federalism and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Edward L. Gibson
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801874246
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Using theoretical essays and case studies, the authors address questions of how and when federal institutions matter for politics, policy-making and democratic practice. They also offer conceptual approaches for studying federal systems, their origins and their internal dynamics.We live in an increasingly federalized world. This fact has generated interest in how federal institutions shape politics, policy-making and the quality of life of those living in federal systems. In this book, Edward L. Gibson brings together a group of scholars to examine the Latin American experience with federalism and to advance our theoretical understanding of politics in federal systems.By means of theoretical essays and case studies, the authors address questions of how and when federal institutions matter for politics, policy-making and democratic practice. They also offer conceptual approaches for studying federal systems, their origins and their internal dynamics. The book provides case studies on the four existing federal systems in Latin America - Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela - and their experiences in dealing with a variety of issues, including federal system formation, democratization, electoral representation and economic reform.

Democracies in Development

Author: J. Mark Payne
Publisher: IDB
ISBN: 1931003319
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The spread of democracy over the past two decades in Latin America has contributed significantly to ensuring fundamental political freedom, civil liberties and human rights. Democracies in Development -- published in cooperation with the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance -- makes it clear that a legitimate and effective democracy is also essential for sustainable economic and social development. The book analyzes the effects of institutions on democratic systems, identifies regional trends in democratic reform, and assesses efforts to enhance governance. Chapters focus on the quality of democratic politics; citizen support for democracy and electoral participation; presidential democracy; political party systems; the balance of power between the executive and legislature; the authority of accountability agencies; and mechanisms to facilitate more direct citizen participation. Appendices outline the institutional structures of the region's democracies and examine voter turnout since 1978. The accompanying CD-ROM features country-by-country election results for presidential and legislative elections. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

Christian Democracy in Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804745987
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Christian Democracy swept across parts of Latin America, gaining influence in Venezuela in the 1940s, Chile in the 1950s, El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1960s, and Costa Rica and Mexico in the 1980s. This book offers an overview of Christian Democracy in the region— underscoring its remarkable diversity—and examines the Christian Democratic organizations of Chile and Mexico, which are still major parties today. The concluding section analyzes the demise of formerly significant Christian Democratic parties in El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, and Venezuela. Christian Democracy in Latin America provides the definitive stufy of the nature, rise, and decline of Christian Democracy in Latin America. The book enriches the broader theoretical literature on political parties by highlighting the distinctive strategic dilemmas parties face, and the distinctive objectives they pursue, in contexts of fragile democracy or of authoritarian regimes.

Democratic Latin America

Author: Craig Arceneaux
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317348834
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Drawing on new approaches in comparative politics, Democratic Latin America focuses on analyzing political institutions as a way to assess broader trends in the region’s politics, including the rise of democracy. The text looks at the major institutions–executive, legislature, judiciary, military, and more—in 18 democratic countries to not only provide an expansive view of politics in Latin America but to also facilitate cross-national comparison. Democratic Latin America uniquely surveys the "what” of the region’s politics as well as the “why” and “how” to help students critically consider Latin America’s future.

Electoral Systems and Democracy

Author: Larry Diamond
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801884757
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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As the number of democracies has increased around the world, a heated debate has emerged among political scientists about which system best promotes the consolidation of democracy. This book compares the experiences of diverse countries, from Latin America to southern Africa, from Uruguay, Japan, and Taiwan to Israel, Afghanistan, and Iraq.

The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil

Author: Barry Ames
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472021437
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Many countries have experimented with different electoral rules in order either to increase involvement in the political system or make it easier to form stable governments. Barry Ames explores this important topic in one of the world's most populous and important democracies, Brazil. This book locates one of the sources of Brazil's "crisis of governance" in the nation's unique electoral system, a system that produces a multiplicity of weak parties and individualistic, pork-oriented politicians with little accountability to citizens. It explains the government's difficulties in adopting innovative policies by examining electoral rules, cabinet formation, executive-legislative conflict, party discipline and legislative negotiation. The book combines extensive use of new sources of data, ranging from historical and demographic analysis in focused comparisons of individual states to unique sources of data for the exploration of legislative politics. The discussion of party discipline in the Chamber of Deputies is the first multivariate model of party cooperation or defection in Latin America that includes measures of such important phenomena as constituency effects, pork-barrel receipts, ideology, electoral insecurity, and intention to seek reelection. With a unique data set and a sophisticated application of rational choice theory, Barry Ames demonstrates the effect of different electoral rules for election to Brazil's legislature. The readership of this book includes anyone wanting to understand the crisis of democratic politics in Brazil. The book will be especially useful to scholars and students in the areas of comparative politics, Latin American politics, electoral analysis, and legislative studies. Barry Ames is the Andrew Mellon Professor of Comparative Politics and Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh.

Building Democratic Institutions Party Systems in Latin America

Author:
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804765374
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Third, the authors investigate the relationship between major parties and the state, revealing the extent to which parties are dependent on state resources to maintain power and win votes. Fourth, the contributions assess the importance of different electoral regimes for shaping broader patterns of party competition. Finally, and most important, the authors characterize the nature of the party system in each country - how institutionalized it is and how it can be classified."--BOOK JACKET.