Electronic Noses Sensors for the Detection of Explosives

Author: J. Gardner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1402028008
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.

Electronic Noses Sensors for the Detection of Explosives

Author: J. Gardner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1402028008
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes

Author: M. Krausa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402027168
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The fast detection of explosives from the vapor phase would be one way to enhance the protection of society against terrorist attacks. Up to now the problem of detection of explosives, especially the location of explosives whether at large areas e. g. station halls, theaters or hidden in cars, aircraft cargo, baggage or explosives hidden in crowds e. g. suicide bombers or bombs in bags has not been solved. Smelling of explosives like dogs do seems to be a valuable tool for a security chain. In general different strategies can be adopt to the basic problem of explosive detection: • bulk detection • vapor detection Normally meetings cover both aspects and applications of the detection. Even though both methods might fulfill special aspects of a general security chain the underlying scientific questions differ strongly. Because of that the discussions of the scientists and practitioners from the different main directions are sometimes only less specific. Therefore the NATO Advisory Panel in Security-Related Civil Science and Technology proposed a small series of NATO ARW's which focuses on the different scientific aspects of explosives detection methods. This book is based on material presented at the first NATO ARW of this series in Moscow which covered the topic: Vapor and trace detection of explosives. The second ARW was held in St. Petersburg and treated the topic Bulk detection methods. The third workshop was held in Warwick and focused on electronic noses which cover a somewhat different aspect of vapor detection.

Demystifying Explosives

Author: Sethuramasharma Venugopalan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128017562
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Demystifying Explosives: Concepts in High Energy Materials explains the basic concepts of and the science behind the entire spectrum of high energy materials (HEMs) and gives a broad perspective about all types of HEMs and their interrelationships. Demystifying Explosives covers topics ranging from explosives, deflagration, detonation, and pyrotechnics to safety and security aspects of HEMS, looking at their aspects, particularly their inter-relatedness with respect to properties and performance. The book explains concepts related to the molecular structure of HEMs, their properties, performance parameters, detonation and shock waves including explosives and propellants. The theory-based title also deals with important (safety and security) and interesting (constructive applications) aspects connected with HEMs and is of fundamental use to students in their introduction to these materials and applications. Explains the concept of high energy materials in simple language and down-to-earth examples Worked examples and problems are given wherever required Demystifies the concept of explosives Limited use of big and complex equations Questions and Suggested Reading are given at the end of each chapter

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives

Author: Hiltmar Schubert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402048858
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book collects lectures of an international NATO-Russian Advanced Research Workshop on Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (IE) used by terrorists. The disposal of IE is especially dangerous, because they are often much more unstable and mechanically more sensitive than commercial or military explosives. This text covers detection of explosives by different analytical methods and the different shape and compositions of the explosive charge, and offers up-to-date advice on handling and disposal.

Chemical Sensors

Author: Ghenadii Korotcenkov
Publisher: Momentum Press
ISBN: 1606502352
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Chemical sensors are integral to the automation of myriad industrial processes, as well as everyday monitoring of such activities as public safety, engine performance, medical therapeutics, and many more. This massive reference work will cover all major categories of chemical sensor materials and devices, and their general functional usage...from monitoring and analyzing gases, to analyzing liquids and compounds of all kinds. This is THE reference work on sensors used for chemical detection and analysis. In this fourth volume will be found detailed background on all major classes of solid-state-based chemical sensors including metal oxide-based conductometric gas sensors; Schottky-, FET-, and work-function chemical sensors; capacitance-type chemical sensors; pyroelectric (thermoelectric) gas sensors; some new views on Pellistors; mass-sensitive chemical sensors; acoustic-wave-chemical sensors; and integrated chemical sensors.

Detection of Explosives and Landmines

Author: Hiltmar Schubert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401003971
Format: PDF, Docs
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This ARW is the third NATO-sponsored workshop on Explosives Detection and Humanitarian Demining. The previous events were • Detection and Destruction of Anti-Personnel Landmines Moscow, 1997 • Explosives Detection and Decontamination of the Environment Prague, 1997. Over the last decade applied research in Humanitarian Demining has made progress to some extend, but according to the tremendous tasks of Demining and the lack of scientific methods for practical detection of explosive devices, research activities are still of the same importance than ever before. Concerning countermeasures against terrorism the detection of explosives is one of the keyfactors, but the practical applications are not sufficient solved. An international exchange of research results are therefore urgent, to find out the most promising measures for application. The coincidence of this ARW and the terrible disaster of New York and Washington may demonstrate the importance of this task. In consequence the explosive device detection technologies can make a major contribution to collective, family and individual security. In developed countries, these technologies provide a strong deterrent and preventative measure against terrorist threats. In less developed regions, they can improve individual, institutional and state security, lessening the insecurity that motivates many terrorists acts. The elimination of landmine threats is just one of many ways of achieving this. However our attempts to meet the extremely difficult technical challenges posed by landmine and UXO contamination are inevitably leading us to new technological approaches.

The Electronic Nose Artificial Olfaction Technology

Author: Himanshu K. Patel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8132215486
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides the basics of odor, odor analysis techniques, sensors used in odor analysis and overview of odor measurement techniques. For beginners as well researchers this book is a brief guide for odor measurement and analysis. The book includes a special chapter dedicated to practical implementation of e-nose sensor devices with software utility, which guides students to prepare projects and work in practical analysis. It also includes material from early to latest technology research available in the market of e-nose era. Students and researchers who want to learn the basics of biomedical engineering and sensor measurement technology will find this book useful.

Nanoscale Devices Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Rudolf Gross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402051077
Format: PDF
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This book collects papers on the fundamentals and applications of nanoscale devices, first presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nanoscale Devices – Fundamentals and Applications held in Kishinev, Moldova, in September 2004. The focus is on the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale magnetic materials; fundamental physics and materials aspects of solid-state nanostructures; development of novel device concepts and design principles for nanoscale devices; and on applications in electronics with emphasis on defence against the threat of terrorism.