Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Author: Mgr.Adam Smetana
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319070738
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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With this thesis the author contributes to the development of a non-mainstream but long-standing approach to electroweak symmetry breaking based on an analogy with superconductivity. Electroweak symmetry breaking is assumed to be caused by dynamically generated masses of typical fermions, i.e., of quarks and leptons, which in turn assumes a new dynamics between quarks and leptons. Primarily it is designed to generate fermion masses and electroweak symmetry breaking is an automatic consequence. After the summary of the topic, the first main part of the thesis addresses the question as to whether the masses of known quarks and leptons provide sufficiently strong sources of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is demonstrated that neutrino masses subject to the seesaw mechanism are indispensable ingredients. The other two parts of the thesis are dedicated to the presentation of two particular models: The first model is based on the new strong Yukawa dynamics and serves as a platform for studying the ability to reproduce fermion masses. The second, more realistic model introduces a flavor gauge dynamics and its phenomenological consequences are studied. Even though, in the past, this type of models has already been of some interest, following the discovery of the Standard-Model-like Higgs particle, it is regaining its relevance.

Unified Symmetry

Author: Behram N. Kursunogammalu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461518555
Format: PDF, ePub
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The twenty-second Coral Gables conference "UNIFIED SYMMETRY: In the Small and In the Large" continued with the efforts to unify the small and the large. The information gathered with the Huble telescope has in part, in the absence of the SCC , provided a basis for the physicists to unify cosmology and elementary particle physics. The congressional cancellation of the biggest experimental project on the frontiers of physics should not be regarded as an insurmountable obstacle to progress in theoretical physics. The physicists' rise to prominence was mostly reached through their creation of the nuclear era. The post cold war era has somewhat reduced the political, military, and, in part, the social role of the physicist. Some in the administration and the Congress would like physicists to focus on the directly utilitarian aspects of science. Thus, some people do not realize that this regimentation of science would inhibit the creativity. The contributions of solid state physics research to the advancement of technology is the result of physics freely pursued independently of its applications. Modern Physics beginning with Newton's theory of gravity has enabled us to create the space age, to contribute to various technologies, and to impact on our technological modus vivendi.

Ultimate Horizons

Author: Helmut Satz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642416578
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the last hundred years, modern physics and cosmology have shown that there exist regions of the universe forever beyond our reach, hidden by truly ultimate horizons. Such regions exist in those remote parts of the universe where, from our point of view, space expands faster than the speed of light. They are found in black holes, where the gravity is strong enough to retain even light within its field of attraction. And in the realm of the very small, quarks must remain forever confined to their world of extreme density and can never be removed from it. The aim of this book is to describe these ultimate horizons, how they were discovered, how they shape our view of the world, and what clues we have about a world beyond them.

The Higgs Boson Discovery at the Large Hadron Collider

Author: Roger Wolf
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319185128
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Higgs boson physics. It offers the first in-depth review of the complete results in connection with the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and based on the full dataset for the years 2011 to 2012. The fundamental concepts and principles of Higgs physics are introduced and the important searches prior to the advent of the Large Hadron Collider are briefly summarized. Lastly, the discovery and first mensuration of the observed particle in the course of the CMS experiment are discussed in detail and compared to the results obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

Effective Field Theories for Heavy Majorana Neutrinos in a Thermal Bath

Author: Simone Biondini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319639013
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This thesis discusses the construction of an effective field theory (EFT) for non-relativistic Majorana fermions, shows how to use it to calculate observables in a thermal medium, and derives the effects of these thermal particles on the CP asymmetry. The methods described in this thesis are the only ones to date that allow a systematic and effective description of the non-relativistic dynamics of a heavy Majorana fermion at finite temperature. The CP asymmetry is studied for hierarchical and nearly degenerate heavy-neutrino masses and the analysis includes the treatment of lepton-flavor effects. Heavy Majorana neutrinos are involved in many scenarios of physics beyond the standard model and, in the leptogenesis framework, they are at the root of the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Besides simplifying existing results, the EFT approach provides useful tools for addressing even more involved observables. Indeed, taken together, the approach and the material presented here represent an important step toward a systematic improvement of our knowledge of the CP asymmetry in heavy-neutrino decays at finite temperature.

Physics and Astrophysics of Neutrinos

Author: Masataka Fukugita
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431670297
Format: PDF, Docs
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Observations of neutrinos being emitted by the supernova SN1987A, star neutrinos, and atmospheric neutrinos have provided new insights into astronomy, as well as new unresolved phenomena such as the solar neutrino problem, spurring investigative studies among particle physicists and astrophysicists. One of the most important features of this book is its enumeration of a number of basic properties of neutrinos and their relationship to Grand Unified Theories, focusing on the origin of the neutrino's mass and the generation mixing of neutrinos. All the kamiokande results, detector performances, and complete references are included.

60 Years of CERN Experiments and Discoveries

Author: Herwig Schopper
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814644161
Format: PDF
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The book is a compilation of the most important experimental results achieved during the past 60 years at CERN - from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. Covering the results from the early accelerators at CERN to those most recent at the LHC, the contents provide an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. Not only presented is the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades, but also demonstrated is the special way in which successful international collaboration exists at CERN. Contents:Foreword (R-D Heuer)Preface (L Di Lella and H Schopper)The Discovery of the Higgs Boson at the LHC (P Jenni and T S Virdee)Precision Physics with Heavy-Flavoured Hadrons (P Koppenburg and V Vagnoni)Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN (J Schukraft and R Stock)The Measurement of the Number of Light Neutrino Species at LEP (S Mele)Precision Experiments at LEP (W de Boer)The Discovery of the W and Z Particles (L Di Lella and C Rubbia)The Discovery of Weak Neutral Currents (D Haidt)Highlights from High Energy Neutrino Experiments at CERN (W-D Schlatter)The Discovery of Direct CP Violation (L Iconomidou-Fayard and D Fournier)Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment (T Ruf)An ISR Discovery: The Rise of the Proton–Proton Cross-Section (U Amaldi)Deep Inelastic Scattering with the SPS Muon Beam (G K Mallot and R Voss)Revealing Partons in Hadrons: From the ISR to the SPS Collider (P Darriulat and L Di Lella)Properties of Antiprotons and Antihydrogen, and the Study of Exotic Atoms (M Doser)Muon g–2 and Tests of Relativity (F J M Farley)The Discoveries of Rare Pion Decays at the CERN Synchrocyclotron (G Fidecaro)Highlights at ISOLDE (K Blaum, M J G Borge, B Jonson and P Van Duppen) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, and historians of science. Keywords:CERN;Particle Physics Experiments