Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Author: Mgr.Adam Smetana
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319070738
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With this thesis the author contributes to the development of a non-mainstream but long-standing approach to electroweak symmetry breaking based on an analogy with superconductivity. Electroweak symmetry breaking is assumed to be caused by dynamically generated masses of typical fermions, i.e., of quarks and leptons, which in turn assumes a new dynamics between quarks and leptons. Primarily it is designed to generate fermion masses and electroweak symmetry breaking is an automatic consequence. After the summary of the topic, the first main part of the thesis addresses the question as to whether the masses of known quarks and leptons provide sufficiently strong sources of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is demonstrated that neutrino masses subject to the seesaw mechanism are indispensable ingredients. The other two parts of the thesis are dedicated to the presentation of two particular models: The first model is based on the new strong Yukawa dynamics and serves as a platform for studying the ability to reproduce fermion masses. The second, more realistic model introduces a flavor gauge dynamics and its phenomenological consequences are studied. Even though, in the past, this type of models has already been of some interest, following the discovery of the Standard-Model-like Higgs particle, it is regaining its relevance.

Unified Symmetry

Author: Behram N. Kursunogammalu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461518555
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The twenty-second Coral Gables conference "UNIFIED SYMMETRY: In the Small and In the Large" continued with the efforts to unify the small and the large. The information gathered with the Huble telescope has in part, in the absence of the SCC , provided a basis for the physicists to unify cosmology and elementary particle physics. The congressional cancellation of the biggest experimental project on the frontiers of physics should not be regarded as an insurmountable obstacle to progress in theoretical physics. The physicists' rise to prominence was mostly reached through their creation of the nuclear era. The post cold war era has somewhat reduced the political, military, and, in part, the social role of the physicist. Some in the administration and the Congress would like physicists to focus on the directly utilitarian aspects of science. Thus, some people do not realize that this regimentation of science would inhibit the creativity. The contributions of solid state physics research to the advancement of technology is the result of physics freely pursued independently of its applications. Modern Physics beginning with Newton's theory of gravity has enabled us to create the space age, to contribute to various technologies, and to impact on our technological modus vivendi.

Ultimate Horizons

Author: Helmut Satz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642416578
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the last hundred years, modern physics and cosmology have shown that there exist regions of the universe forever beyond our reach, hidden by truly ultimate horizons. Such regions exist in those remote parts of the universe where, from our point of view, space expands faster than the speed of light. They are found in black holes, where the gravity is strong enough to retain even light within its field of attraction. And in the realm of the very small, quarks must remain forever confined to their world of extreme density and can never be removed from it. The aim of this book is to describe these ultimate horizons, how they were discovered, how they shape our view of the world, and what clues we have about a world beyond them.

The Higgs Boson Discovery at the Large Hadron Collider

Author: Roger Wolf
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319185128
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Higgs boson physics. It offers the first in-depth review of the complete results in connection with the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and based on the full dataset for the years 2011 to 2012. The fundamental concepts and principles of Higgs physics are introduced and the important searches prior to the advent of the Large Hadron Collider are briefly summarized. Lastly, the discovery and first mensuration of the observed particle in the course of the CMS experiment are discussed in detail and compared to the results obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

First Workshop on Grand Unification

Author: FRAMPTON
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468469037
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This workshop held at the New England Center provided a timely opportunity for over 100 participants to gather in a unique environment and discuss the present status of the unification of strong and electroweak forces. One reason for the timeliness was perhaps that experiments of the seventies had already lent confirmation to the separate theories of strong and of electroweak forces, so that for the eighties it now seems especially compelling to attempt the grand unification of these two forces. Also, the planned experiments to search for proton decay and the new experiments which are suggestive, though not yet conclusive, of non-zero neutrino rest masses add further stimulus to the theory. Thus, the workshop provided an ideal forum for exchange of ideas amongst active physicists. The presentations at the workshop covered the present status of both theory and experiment with a strong interplay. Also, there were presentations from the discipline of astrophysics which is becoming very intertwined with that of high-energy physics especially when in the latter one is addressing energies and temperatures that were extant only in the first nanosecond of the universe. On experiment, we heard a comprehensive coverage of the four United States proton decay experiments. The Brookhaven-Irvine-Michigan experiment in the Morton Salt Mine at Fairport Harbor, Ohio was discussed by LARRY SULAK, while DAVID WINN talked on the Harvard-Purdue-Wisconsin effort in the Silver King Mine, Utah. MARVIN MARSHAK and RICHARD STEINBERG described respectively the Soudan Mine, Minnesot~ and the Homestake Mine, South Dakot~experiments.

Physics and Astrophysics of Neutrinos

Author: Masataka Fukugita
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431670297
Format: PDF, Docs
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Observations of neutrinos being emitted by the supernova SN1987A, star neutrinos, and atmospheric neutrinos have provided new insights into astronomy, as well as new unresolved phenomena such as the solar neutrino problem, spurring investigative studies among particle physicists and astrophysicists. One of the most important features of this book is its enumeration of a number of basic properties of neutrinos and their relationship to Grand Unified Theories, focusing on the origin of the neutrino's mass and the generation mixing of neutrinos. All the kamiokande results, detector performances, and complete references are included.

60 Years of CERN Experiments and Discoveries

Author: Herwig Schopper
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814644161
Format: PDF, ePub
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The book is a compilation of the most important experimental results achieved during the past 60 years at CERN - from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. Covering the results from the early accelerators at CERN to those most recent at the LHC, the contents provide an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. Not only presented is the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades, but also demonstrated is the special way in which successful international collaboration exists at CERN. Contents:Foreword (R-D Heuer)Preface (L Di Lella and H Schopper)The Discovery of the Higgs Boson at the LHC (P Jenni and T S Virdee)Precision Physics with Heavy-Flavoured Hadrons (P Koppenburg and V Vagnoni)Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN (J Schukraft and R Stock)The Measurement of the Number of Light Neutrino Species at LEP (S Mele)Precision Experiments at LEP (W de Boer)The Discovery of the W and Z Particles (L Di Lella and C Rubbia)The Discovery of Weak Neutral Currents (D Haidt)Highlights from High Energy Neutrino Experiments at CERN (W-D Schlatter)The Discovery of Direct CP Violation (L Iconomidou-Fayard and D Fournier)Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment (T Ruf)An ISR Discovery: The Rise of the Proton–Proton Cross-Section (U Amaldi)Deep Inelastic Scattering with the SPS Muon Beam (G K Mallot and R Voss)Revealing Partons in Hadrons: From the ISR to the SPS Collider (P Darriulat and L Di Lella)Properties of Antiprotons and Antihydrogen, and the Study of Exotic Atoms (M Doser)Muon g–2 and Tests of Relativity (F J M Farley)The Discoveries of Rare Pion Decays at the CERN Synchrocyclotron (G Fidecaro)Highlights at ISOLDE (K Blaum, M J G Borge, B Jonson and P Van Duppen) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, and historians of science. Keywords:CERN;Particle Physics Experiments

Frontiers of Fundamental Physics and Physics Education Research

Author: Burra G. Sidharth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331900297X
Format: PDF, ePub
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In a knowledge-based society, research into fundamental physics plays a vital role not only in the enhancement of human knowledge but also in the development of new technology that affects everyday life.The international symposium series Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP) regularly brings together eminent scholars and researchers working in various areas in physics to exchange expertise, ideas, results, and new research perspectives. The twelfth such symposium, FFP12, took place at the University of Udine, Italy, and covered diverse fields of research: astrophysics, high energy physics and particle physics, theoretical physics, gravitation and cosmology, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, computational physics, and mathematical physics. Importantly, it also devoted a great deal of attention to physics education research, teacher training in modern physics, and popularization of physics. The high scientific level of FFP12 was guaranteed by the careful selection made by scientific coordinators from among 250 submissions from 28 countries across the world. During the three days of the conference, nine general talks were delivered in plenary sessions, 29 invited talks were given in specific topic areas, and 59 oral presentations were made. This book presents a selection of the best contributions at FFP12 with the aim of acquainting readers with the most important recent advances in fundamental physics and in physics education and teacher development.