Elements of Synthesis Planning

Author: R. W. Hoffmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792208
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry. In order for compounds to be studied—be it as drugs, materials, or because of their physical properties— they have to be prepared, often in multistep synthetic sequences. Thus, the target compound is at the outset of synthesis planning. Synthesis involves creating the target compound from smaller, readily available building blocks. Immediately, questions arise: From which bui- ing blocks? In which sequence? By which reactions? Nature creates many highly complex “natural products” via reaction cascades, in which an asso- ment of starting compounds present within the cell is transformed by speci c (for each target structure) combinations of modular enzymes in speci c - quences into the target compounds [1, 2]. To mimic this ef ciency is the dream of an ideal synthesis [2]. However, we are at present so far from - alising such a “one-pot” operation that actual synthesis has to be achieved via a sequence of individual discrete steps. Thus, we are left with the task of planning each synthesis individually in an optimal fashion. Synthesis planning must be conducted with regard for certain speci - tions, some of which are due to the structure of the target molecule, and some of which relate to external parameters such as costs, environmental compatibility, or novelty. We will not consider these external aspects in this context. Planning of a synthesis is based on a pool of information regarding chemical reactions that can be executed reliably and in high chemical yield.

Le Corbusier

Author: Stanislaus von Moos
Publisher: 010 Publishers
ISBN: 9064506426
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Originally published in Germany in 1968, this first comprehensive and critical survey of Le Corbusier's life and work soon became the standard text on the architect and polymath. French, Spanish, English, Japanese and Korean editions followed, but the book has now been out of print for almost two decades. In the meantime, Le Corbusier's archives in Paris have become available for research, resulting in an avalanche of scholarship. Von Moos' critical take and the basic criteria by which the subject is organized and historicized remain surprisingly pertinent in the context of this recent jungle of Corbusier studies. This new, completely revised edition is based on the 1979 version published in English by the MIT Press but offers a substantially updated body of illustrations. Each of the seven chapters is supplemented by a critical survey of recent scholarship on the respective issues. An updated edition of this acclaimed book, an essential read for students of architecture and architectural history.

A Concise Introduction to Models and Methods for Automated Planning

Author: Hector Geffner
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608459705
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Planning is the model-based approach to autonomous behavior where the agent behavior is derived automatically from a model of the actions, sensors, and goals. The main challenges in planning are computational as all models, whether featuring uncertainty and feedback or not, are intractable in the worst case when represented in compact form. In this book, we look at a variety of models used in AI planning, and at the methods that have been developed for solving them. The goal is to provide a modern and coherent view of planning that is precise, concise, and mostly self-contained, without being shallow. For this, we make no attempt at covering the whole variety of planning approaches, ideas, and applications, and focus on the essentials. The target audience of the book are students and researchers interested in autonomous behavior and planning from an AI, engineering, or cognitive science perspective. Table of Contents: Preface / Planning and Autonomous Behavior / Classical Planning: Full Information and Deterministic Actions / Classical Planning: Variations and Extensions / Beyond Classical Planning: Transformations / Planning with Sensing: Logical Models / MDP Planning: Stochastic Actions and Full Feedback / POMDP Planning: Stochastic Actions and Partial Feedback / Discussion / Bibliography / Author's Biography

Analytical Planning

Author: Thomas L. Saaty
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483153967
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Analytical Planning: The Organization of Systems deals with systems and planning and suggests a methodological tool for integrating the two. This book presents the basic ideas behind complexity, systems, hierarchies, and prioritization and describes planning as a unique form of decision making with illustrations of some prominent philosophical and methodological approaches. It highlights some shortcomings of traditional approaches to planning and shows how these can be addressed by the systems approach. This monograph consists of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the nature of complexity and describes an approach that facilitates the use of creativity and experience to structure complex problems. The next chapter explains the rationale for systems thinking and how reductionism works. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is then considered, along with its relationship to some of the properties of systems. The remaining chapters focus on ways of thinking about planning and philosophies of planning; strategic planning; and the applicability of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to benefit-cost analysis and resource allocation. This book is intended for managers, decision makers, and planners, as well as researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics and computer science.

Notes on the Synthesis of Form

Author: Christopher Alexander
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674627512
Format: PDF, ePub
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"These notes are about the process of design: the process of inventing things which display new physical order, organization, form, in response to function." This book, opening with these words, presents an entirely new theory of the process of design. In the first part of the book, Mr. Alexander discusses the process by which a form is adapted to the context of human needs and demands that has called it into being. He shows that such an adaptive process will be successful only if it proceeds piecemeal instead of all at once. It is for this reason that forms from traditional unselfconscious cultures, molded not by designers but by the slow pattern of changes within tradition, are so beautifully organized and adapted. When the designer, in our own self-conscious culture, is called on to create a form that is adapted to its context he is unsuccessful, because the preconceived categories out of which he builds his picture of the problem do not correspond to the inherent components of the problem, and therefore lead only to the arbitrariness, willfulness, and lack of understanding which plague the design of modern buildings and modern cities. In the second part, Mr. Alexander presents a method by which the designer may bring his full creative imagination into play, and yet avoid the traps of irrelevant preconception. He shows that, whenever a problem is stated, it is possible to ignore existing concepts and to create new concepts, out of the structure of the problem itself, which do correspond correctly to what he calls the subsystems of the adaptive process. By treating each of these subsystems as a separate subproblem, the designer can translate the new concepts into form. The form, because of the process, will be well-adapted to its context, non-arbitrary, and correct. The mathematics underlying this method, based mainly on set theory, is fully developed in a long appendix. Another appendix demonstrates the application of the method to the design of an Indian village.

Organic Synthesis

Author: Jürgen-Hinrich Fuhrhop
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527302727
Format: PDF
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Since it is one of the core disciplines, every student of organic chemistry will need to cover organic synthesis at some point. This third edition of an extremely well-received and proven textbook is specially written with advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mind, although it is equally useful for research chemists, too. The text has been enlarged by 15 % to include new chapters on combinatoric chemistry, non-covalent molecular assemblies and the use of the Internet for searching chemical compounds. The authors have chosen the methods included here for their efficiency, elegance, and didactic value and have highlighted important reactions within the text. From reviews of the second edition: 'The text is very readable, and the authors are especially gifted at explaining complex concepts clearly and succinctly...This book is highly recommended reading for anyone wishing to gain an overview of organic synthesis.' J. Am. Chem. Soc. With his preface, Noble prizewinner E. J. Corey has also endorsed this already highly acclaimed work.

Organic Chemistry from Retrosynthesis to Asymmetric Synthesis

Author: Vitomir Šunjić
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319299263
Format: PDF
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This book connects a retrosynthetic or disconnection approach with synthetic methods in the preparation of target molecules from simple, achiral ones to complex, chiral structures in the optically pure form. Retrosynthetic considerations and asymmetric syntheses are presented as closely related topics, often in the same chapter, underlining the importance of retrosynthetic consideration of target molecules neglecting stereochemistry and equipping readers to overcome the difficulties they may encounter in the planning and experimental implementation of asymmetric syntheses. This approach prepares students in advanced organic chemistry courses, and in particular young scientists working at academic and industrial laboratories, for independently solving synthetic problems and creating proposals for the synthesis of complex structures.

The Way of Synthesis

Author: Tomas Hudlicky
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This two-colored textbook presents not only synthetic ways to design organic compounds, it also contains a compilation of the most important total synthesis of the last 50 years with a comparative view of multiple designs for the same targets. It explains different tactics and strategies, making it easy to apply to many problems, regardless of the synthetic question in hand. Following a historical view of the evolution of synthesis, the book goes on to look at principles and issues impacting synthesis and design as well as principles and issues of methods. The sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, while a further section covers such miscellaneous syntheses as Maytansine, Palytoxin, Brevetoxin B and Indinavir. The whole is rounded off with a look at future perspectives and, what makes this textbook extraordinairy, with personal recollections of the chemists, who synthesized these fascinating compounds. With its attractive layout highlighting key parts and tactics using a second color, this is a useful tool for organic chemists, lecturers and students in chemistry, as well as those working in the chemical industry. "I think, as will many organic chemists, that the Hudlicky book will be the Bible of synthetic organic chemistry, the past, the present and the future. A hallmark publication." (Victor Snieckus)

Local Climate Action Planning

Author: Michael R. Boswell
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610912012
Format: PDF, ePub
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Climate change is a global problem, but the problem begins locally. Cities consume 75% of the world's energy and emit 80% of the world's greenhouse gases. Changing the way we build and operate our cities can have major effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Fortunately, communities across the U.S. are responding to the climate change problem by making plans that assess their contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and specify actions they will take to reduce these emissions. This is the first book designed to help planners, municipal staff and officials, citizens and others working at local levels to develop Climate Action Plans. CAPs are strategic plans that establish policies and programs for mitigating a community's greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. They typically focus on transportation, energy use, and solid waste, and often differentiate between community-wide actions and municipal agency actions. CAPs are usually based on GHG emissions inventories, which indentify the sources of emissions from the community and quantify the amounts. Additionally, many CAPs include a section addressing adaptation-how the community will respond to the impacts of climate change on the community, such as increased flooding, extended drought, or sea level rise. With examples drawn from actual plans, Local Climate Action Planning guides preparers of CAPs through the entire plan development process, identifying the key considerations and choices that must be made in order to assure that a plan is both workable and effective.

Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis

Author: Planning Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309103223
Format: PDF, ePub
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What information is available to inform the planning of a nutrition research agenda for the United States and Canada? This question provided the backdrop for the Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis project undertaken by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative reference values for recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels for a range of nutrients. They are used widely by dietitians in individual counseling, by federal nutrition officials in program and policy development, and by the nutrition research and education communities in government, academia, and industry. Between 1997 and 2005, the IOM published a series of six DRI reports covering a total of 45 nutrients, energy, and other food components. The IOM also issued two reports describing ways to apply the DRIs in assessment and planning. Together, these eight reports contain more than 450 research recommendations and thus a wealth of information pertinent to a nutrition research agenda. To make the recommendations more accessible, the Food and Nutrition Board undertook a project with two major elements: (1) the development of a searchable database of all the DRI research recommendations, and (2) the Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop, held June 7-8, 2006, which was designed to provide a venue for hearing and discussing experts' perspectives on the research recommendations identified in the DRI reports. Two members of the workshop planning group—Drs. John W. Suttie and Susan J. Whiting—moderated the DRI Research Synthesis Workshop. After an overview and demonstration of the DRI Research Synthesis Database, panels of experts addressed DRI research recommendations related to each of the six DRI nutrient reports, the two DRI applications reports, and three cross-cutting topics: (1) setting DRIs for children, (2) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, and (3) relevant new and underutilized research techniques. This report is a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions.