Elements of Synthesis Planning

Author: R. W. Hoffmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792208
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry. In order for compounds to be studied—be it as drugs, materials, or because of their physical properties— they have to be prepared, often in multistep synthetic sequences. Thus, the target compound is at the outset of synthesis planning. Synthesis involves creating the target compound from smaller, readily available building blocks. Immediately, questions arise: From which bui- ing blocks? In which sequence? By which reactions? Nature creates many highly complex “natural products” via reaction cascades, in which an asso- ment of starting compounds present within the cell is transformed by speci c (for each target structure) combinations of modular enzymes in speci c - quences into the target compounds [1, 2]. To mimic this ef ciency is the dream of an ideal synthesis [2]. However, we are at present so far from - alising such a “one-pot” operation that actual synthesis has to be achieved via a sequence of individual discrete steps. Thus, we are left with the task of planning each synthesis individually in an optimal fashion. Synthesis planning must be conducted with regard for certain speci - tions, some of which are due to the structure of the target molecule, and some of which relate to external parameters such as costs, environmental compatibility, or novelty. We will not consider these external aspects in this context. Planning of a synthesis is based on a pool of information regarding chemical reactions that can be executed reliably and in high chemical yield.

Synthesis of Freight Research in Urban Transportation Planning

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Publisher:
ISBN: 9780309259088
Format: PDF, ePub
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"TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 23: Synthesis of Freight Research in Urban Transportation Planning explores policies and practices for managing freight activity in metropolitan areas. The primary focus of the report is on "last-mile/first-mile" strategies, but it also addresses strategies affecting environmental issues and trading hubs or nodes. The research used to develop the report looked beyond the United States--mostly, but not exclusively' in Europe and the European BESTUFS (Best Urban Freight Solutions) program--for potentially relevant policies and practices that could be used in the United States"

Geographical Information Systems for Urban and Regional Planning

Author: Henk J. Scholten
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401716773
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In August 1989, a Summer Institute was held at the Academie van Bouwkunst, the seventeenth century home of Amsterdam's School of Architecture, Town Planning and Landscape. The meeting brought together experts in Geographical Information Systems from throughout the world to address an international audience of planners. The contents of this book reflect many of the themes that were presented and discussed at the conference. The Summer Institute, let alone this volume, would not have been possible without the support of the International Association for the Development and Management of Existing and New Towns (INTNAIVN), the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP), The National Physical Planning Agency of the Netherlands (RPD) and the Berlage Studio. We wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by these organisations and by the various sponsors: The Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, the Municipality of Amsterdam, Logisterion b.v., ESRI, UNISYS, MABON b.v., SPSS, PRIME Computer Inc., PANDATA. The provision of hardware facilities by the various computer companies allowed immensely valuable 'hands on' experience to be gained by all the participants.

Freight Data Cost Elements

Author:
Publisher: Transportation Research Board
ISBN: 9780309258999
Format: PDF
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"TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 22: Freight Data Cost Elements identifies the specific types of direct freight transportation cost data elements required for public investment, policy, and regulatory decisionmaking. The report also describes and assesses different strategies for identifying and obtaining the needed cost data elements"--Publication info.

Current Trends in Knowledge Acquisition

Author: Bob Wielinga
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9789051990362
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Knowledge acquisition has become a major area of artificial intelligence and cognitive science research. The papers in this book show that the area of knowledge acquisition for knowledge-based systems is still a diverse field in which a large number of research topics are being addressed. However, several main themes run through the papers. First, the issues of integrating knowledge from different sources and K.A. tools is a salient topic in many papers. A second major topic in the papers is that of knowledge modelling. Research in knowledge-based systems emphasises the use of generic models of reasoning and its underlying knowledge. An important trend in the area of knowledge modelling aims at the formalisation of knowledge models. Where the field of knowledge acquisition was without tools and techniques years ago, now there is a rapidly growing body of techniques and tools. Apart from the integrated workbenches already mentioned above, several papers in this book present new tools. Although knowledge acquisition and machine learning have been considered as separate subfields of AI, there is a tendency for the two fields to come together. This publication combines machine learning techniques with more conventional knowledge elicitation techniques. A framework is presented in which reasoning, problem solving and learning together form a knowledge intensive system that can acquire knowledge from its own experience.

Public Administration in Perspective

Author: David John Farmer
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 0765628635
Format: PDF, ePub
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There are many ways of looking at public administration thinking and practice. Throughout its history, the PA discipline has used a number of different perspectives, and both mainstream and alternative lenses have produced valuable insights and prescriptions. At the same time, any one way of looking at public administration can be misleading. A solitary lens can miss critical aspects and can reveal only part of the picture. Looking at public administration through a variety of perspectives, taken together and synthesized, deepens our understanding of the discipline. A substantial variety of lenses, analyzed together, can give new life to public administration theory and practice. That is the unique contribution of Public Administration in Perspective: Theory and Practice Through Multiple Lenses. Part I of the book exmines PA thinking and practice from a variety of lenses and offers a comprehensive guide to students on the major approaches to theory and practice in the discipline. Each chapter in Part I describes the key features of the selected perspective---history, content, and proponents---and discusses the strengths and weaknesses related to PA theory and practice. Part II synthesizes the various perspectives, with specific implications for PA management and practice. Part III concludes with a complete overview, identifying ways in which the readers can think much more creatively and productively about PA, putting the multiple perspectives themselves into perspective.

Land Use Planning Made Plain

Author: Hok-Lin Leung
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 0802085520
Format: PDF
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A clear and practical guide to coherent planning principles and the making and implementation of land use decisions, focused at the city level and addressing the major debates in land planning today.

Human Resources Administration for Educational Leaders

Author: M. Scott Norton
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412957591
Format: PDF
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A comprehensive and research-based text detailing the important relationship between school administration and human resources administration. "The author provides [students] with specific strategies for navigating the treacherous waters of personnel selection, development, retention, and removal. I wish I had the book when I began my work as Director of Personnel." —Zach Kelehear University of South Carolina Human Resources Administration for Educational Leaders balances theory and pedagogy to demonstrate the historical evolution of the human resources function in education, the link between human resources and organizational effectiveness, and the new trends in human resources accountability. Key Features and Benefits: Provides students with samples of the tools that practicing HR administrators use for planning, recruiting, interviewing, selecting, evaluating, compensating, and developing staff personnel Dedicates separate chapters to areas often neglected in other texts: collective bargaining, human resources responsibility for classified personnel, accountability, and organizational climate and the human resources function Features engaging simulations in the form of case studies and critical questions to help students apply the concepts to practice Accompanied by High-Quality Ancillaries Instructors' Resources on CD-ROM includes a test bank, sample syllabi, PowerPoint slide presentations, and more. Contact SAGE to request your copy. Meet the author! http://coe.asu.edu/elps/faculty/norton.php