Elements of Synthesis Planning

Author: R. W. Hoffmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792208
Format: PDF
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Synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry. In order for compounds to be studied—be it as drugs, materials, or because of their physical properties— they have to be prepared, often in multistep synthetic sequences. Thus, the target compound is at the outset of synthesis planning. Synthesis involves creating the target compound from smaller, readily available building blocks. Immediately, questions arise: From which bui- ing blocks? In which sequence? By which reactions? Nature creates many highly complex “natural products” via reaction cascades, in which an asso- ment of starting compounds present within the cell is transformed by speci c (for each target structure) combinations of modular enzymes in speci c - quences into the target compounds [1, 2]. To mimic this ef ciency is the dream of an ideal synthesis [2]. However, we are at present so far from - alising such a “one-pot” operation that actual synthesis has to be achieved via a sequence of individual discrete steps. Thus, we are left with the task of planning each synthesis individually in an optimal fashion. Synthesis planning must be conducted with regard for certain speci - tions, some of which are due to the structure of the target molecule, and some of which relate to external parameters such as costs, environmental compatibility, or novelty. We will not consider these external aspects in this context. Planning of a synthesis is based on a pool of information regarding chemical reactions that can be executed reliably and in high chemical yield.

The Way of Synthesis

Author: Tomas Hudlicky
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This two-colored textbook presents not only synthetic ways to design organic compounds, it also contains a compilation of the most important total synthesis of the last 50 years with a comparative view of multiple designs for the same targets. It explains different tactics and strategies, making it easy to apply to many problems, regardless of the synthetic question in hand. Following a historical view of the evolution of synthesis, the book goes on to look at principles and issues impacting synthesis and design as well as principles and issues of methods. The sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, while a further section covers such miscellaneous syntheses as Maytansine, Palytoxin, Brevetoxin B and Indinavir. The whole is rounded off with a look at future perspectives and, what makes this textbook extraordinairy, with personal recollections of the chemists, who synthesized these fascinating compounds. With its attractive layout highlighting key parts and tactics using a second color, this is a useful tool for organic chemists, lecturers and students in chemistry, as well as those working in the chemical industry. "I think, as will many organic chemists, that the Hudlicky book will be the Bible of synthetic organic chemistry, the past, the present and the future. A hallmark publication." (Victor Snieckus)

Planning with Markov Decision Processes

Author: Mausam
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608458865
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are widely popular in Artificial Intelligence for modeling sequential decision-making scenarios with probabilistic dynamics. They are the framework of choice when designing an intelligent agent that needs to act for long periods of time in an environment where its actions could have uncertain outcomes. MDPs are actively researched in two related subareas of AI, probabilistic planning and reinforcement learning. Probabilistic planning assumes known models for the agent's goals and domain dynamics, and focuses on determining how the agent should behave to achieve its objectives. On the other hand, reinforcement learning additionally learns these models based on the feedback the agent gets from the environment. This book provides a concise introduction to the use of MDPs for solving probabilistic planning problems, with an emphasis on the algorithmic perspective. It covers the whole spectrum of the field, from the basics to state-of-the-art optimal and approximation algorithms. We first describe the theoretical foundations of MDPs and the fundamental solution techniques for them. We then discuss modern optimal algorithms based on heuristic search and the use of structured representations. A major focus of the book is on the numerous approximation schemes for MDPs that have been developed in the AI literature. These include determinization-based approaches, sampling techniques, heuristic functions, dimensionality reduction, and hierarchical representations. Finally, we briefly introduce several extensions of the standard MDP classes that model and solve even more complex planning problems. Table of Contents: Introduction / MDPs / Fundamental Algorithms / Heuristic Search Algorithms / Symbolic Algorithms / Approximation Algorithms / Advanced Notes

A Concise Introduction to Models and Methods for Automated Planning

Author: Hector Geffner
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608459705
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Planning is the model-based approach to autonomous behavior where the agent behavior is derived automatically from a model of the actions, sensors, and goals. The main challenges in planning are computational as all models, whether featuring uncertainty and feedback or not, are intractable in the worst case when represented in compact form. In this book, we look at a variety of models used in AI planning, and at the methods that have been developed for solving them. The goal is to provide a modern and coherent view of planning that is precise, concise, and mostly self-contained, without being shallow. For this, we make no attempt at covering the whole variety of planning approaches, ideas, and applications, and focus on the essentials. The target audience of the book are students and researchers interested in autonomous behavior and planning from an AI, engineering, or cognitive science perspective. Table of Contents: Preface / Planning and Autonomous Behavior / Classical Planning: Full Information and Deterministic Actions / Classical Planning: Variations and Extensions / Beyond Classical Planning: Transformations / Planning with Sensing: Logical Models / MDP Planning: Stochastic Actions and Full Feedback / POMDP Planning: Stochastic Actions and Partial Feedback / Discussion / Bibliography / Author's Biography

Le Corbusier

Author: Stanislaus von Moos
Publisher: 010 Publishers
ISBN: 9064506426
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Originally published in Germany in 1968, this first comprehensive and critical survey of Le Corbusier's life and work soon became the standard text on the architect and polymath. French, Spanish, English, Japanese and Korean editions followed, but the book has now been out of print for almost two decades. In the meantime, Le Corbusier's archives in Paris have become available for research, resulting in an avalanche of scholarship. Von Moos' critical take and the basic criteria by which the subject is organized and historicized remain surprisingly pertinent in the context of this recent jungle of Corbusier studies. This new, completely revised edition is based on the 1979 version published in English by the MIT Press but offers a substantially updated body of illustrations. Each of the seven chapters is supplemented by a critical survey of recent scholarship on the respective issues. An updated edition of this acclaimed book, an essential read for students of architecture and architectural history.

Notes on the Synthesis of Form

Author: Christopher Alexander
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674627512
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"These notes are about the process of design: the process of inventing things which display new physical order, organization, form, in response to function." This book, opening with these words, presents an entirely new theory of the process of design. In the first part of the book, Christopher Alexander discusses the process by which a form is adapted to the context of human needs and demands that has called it into being. He shows that such an adaptive process will be successful only if it proceeds piecemeal instead of all at once. It is for this reason that forms from traditional un-self-conscious cultures, molded not by designers but by the slow pattern of changes within tradition, are so beautifully organized and adapted. When the designer, in our own self-conscious culture, is called on to create a form that is adapted to its context he is unsuccessful, because the preconceived categories out of which he builds his picture of the problem do not correspond to the inherent components of the problem, and therefore lead only to the arbitrariness, willfulness, and lack of understanding which plague the design of modern buildings and modern cities. In the second part, Mr. Alexander presents a method by which the designer may bring his full creative imagination into play, and yet avoid the traps of irrelevant preconception. He shows that, whenever a problem is stated, it is possible to ignore existing concepts and to create new concepts, out of the structure of the problem itself, which do correspond correctly to what he calls the subsystems of the adaptive process. By treating each of these subsystems as a separate subproblem, the designer can translate the new concepts into form. The form, because of the process, will be well-adapted to its context, non-arbitrary, and correct. The mathematics underlying this method, based mainly on set theory, is fully developed in a long appendix. Another appendix demonstrates the application of the method to the design of an Indian village.

Carbohydrates

Author: Momcilo Miljkovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387922652
Format: PDF
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All essential areas of basic synthetic carbohydrate chemistry are covered and appropriately described. In addition, this book explains the basic reaction mechanisms while taking into account modern concepts such as stereoelectronic principles.

Chemistry of Plant Natural Products

Author: Sunil Kumar Talapatra
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642454100
Format: PDF, Docs
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Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers working with natural products, Professors Sunil and Bani Talapatra provide a highly accessible compilation describing all aspects of plant natural products. Beginning with a general introduction to set the context, the authors then go on to carefully detail nomenclature, occurrence, isolation, detection, structure elucidation (by both degradation and spectroscopic techniques) stereochemistry, conformation, synthesis, biosynthesis, biological activity and commercial applications of the most important natural products of plant origin. Each chapter also includes detailed references (with titles) and a list of recommended books for additional study making this outstanding treatise a useful resource for teachers of chemistry and researchers working in universities, research institutes and industry.

Organic Mechanisms

Author: Reinhard Bruckner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642036511
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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“Much of life can be understood in rational terms if expressed in the language of chemistry. It is an international language, a language without dialects, a language for all time, a language that explains where we came from, what we are, and where the physical world will allow us to go. Chemical Language has great esthetic beauty and links the physical sciences to the b- logical sciences. ” from The Two Cultures: Chemistry and Biology by Arthur Kornberg (Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, 1959) Over the past two centuries, chemistry has evolved from a relatively pure disciplinary pursuit to a position of central importance in the physical and life sciences. More generally, it has p- vided the language and methodology that has unified, integrated and, indeed, molecularized the sciences, shaping our understanding of the molecular world and in so doing the direction, development and destiny of scientific research. The “language of chemistry” referred to by my former Stanford colleague is made up of atoms and bonds and their interactions. It is a s- tem of knowledge that allows us to understand structure and events at a molecular level and increasingly to use that understanding to create new knowledge and beneficial change. The words on this page, for example, are detected by the eye in a series of events, now generally understood at the molecular level.

Introducing Just Sustainabilities

Author: Julian Agyeman
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1780324103
Format: PDF, ePub
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This unique and insightful text offers an exploration of the origins and subsequent development of the concept of just sustainability. Introducing Just Sustainabilities discusses key topics, such as food justice, sovereignty and urban agriculture; community, space, place(making) and spatial justice; the democratization of our streets and public spaces; how to create culturally inclusive spaces; intercultural cities and social inclusion; green-collar jobs and the just transition; and alternative economic models, such as co-production. With a specific focus on solutions-oriented policy and planning initiatives that specifically address issues of equity and justice within the context of developing sustainable communities, this is the essential introduction to just sustainabilities.