Emergent Strategy and Grand Strategy

Author: Ionut Popescu
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421423774
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"Ionut Popescu explores how successful American grand strategy comes about. For most experts in the academic world of political science and in the Washington policymaking community, the answer lies in the design and implementation of a farsighted strategic plan or framework. The role of such a Grand Design is to guide the president's foreign policy actions and resource allocation decisions in the pursuit of specific long-term objectives. The alternative to following a Grand Design is usually said to consist of ad-hoc, incoherent, and ultimately unsuccessful foreign policy decision-making. But what if successful grand strategies are sometimes formed through an emergent process of learning and adaptation, instead of being the product of strategic planning and farsighted designs? Popescu argues that the Emergent Strategy model, adapted from the business strategy literature, explains some of the traditional success stories and failures of American grand strategy better than the prevalent Grand Design model. These findings suggest the need to shift the focus of policymakers away from planning for long-term objectives and toward short- and medium-term incremental learning and adaptation. Based on this new theoretical understanding of successful grand strategy being formed by either Design or Emergent elements depending on the circumstances, the book also offers a framework to help policymakers and strategic planners choose the right model and tools based on the level of uncertainty they face in the external environment"--

Grand Strategy Vs Emergent Strategy in the Conduct of Foreign Policy

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ABSTRACT: Does a great power need to formulate a long-term Grand Strategy to guide its foreign policy actions? While some scholars continue to debate the competing merits of various grand strategies, a growing literature now emphasizes emergent learning and improvisation as the keys to success, as opposed to implementing a long-term design. In this article, I explore these scholarly arguments by framing the debate as one between two schools of thought, Grand Strategy and Emergent Strategy. After presenting the main arguments and the historical examples associated with each school, I evaluate the two approaches across four categories: the type of international security environment each of them is most suited for, the way each approach deals with short-term vs. long-term priorities, the domestic political conditions needed for each approach to be successful, and the type of presidential management qualities each school demands. Lastly, I discuss the implications of these arguments for the scholarship and the practice of foreign policy and national security strategy.

Marketing of High technology Products and Innovations

Author: Jakki J. Mohr
Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780136049968
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The only text on the market that provides readers with the marketing information they need to successfully market high-tech products. Introduction to World of High Technology Marketing; Strategic Market Planning in; High-Tech Firms; Culture and Climate Considerations for High-Tech Companies; Market Orientation and Cross-functional (Marketing/R&D); Partnerships/Alliances and Customer Relationship Marketing; Marketing Research in High-Tech Markets; Understanding High-Tech Customers; Technology and Product Management; Distribution Channels and Supply Chain Management in High-Tech Markets; Pricing Considerations in High-Tech Markets; Marketing Communication Tools for High-Tech Markets; Strategic Considerations in Marketing Communications; Strategic Considerations for the Triple Bottom Line in High-Tech Companies MARKET: Marketing of High-Technology Products and Innovations provides comprehensive coverage of the latest academic research and leading-edge business practices to prepare readers for the unique challenges they will face when marketing high-tech products and services.

Die Parabel vom S mann

Author: Octavia E. Butler
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
ISBN: 3641179564
Format: PDF, Docs
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Immerwährender Wandel Kalifornien im Jahre 2025: Die Regierung ist handlungsunfähig, der Bundesstaat leidet unter Wasserarmut. Wer es sich leisten kann, lebt hinter dicken Mauern zum Schutz vor den kriminellen Banden, die ohne Gnade rauben, vergewaltigen und morden. In dieser Welt wächst die fünfzehnjährige Lauren Olamina als Tochter eines Baptistenpriesters auf. Sie ist hyperempathisch – sie fühlt die Schmerzen anderer am eigenen Leib. Als ihre kleine Gemeinde angegriffen und zerstört wird, macht sie sich auf eine gefährliche Reise nach Norden, um ihren Platz in dieser Welt zu finden ...

Emergent Knowledge Strategies

Author: Ettore Bolisani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319606573
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is intended to spark a discourse on, and contribute to finding a clear consensus in, the debate between conceptualizing a knowledge strategy and planning a knowledge strategy. It explores the complex relationship between the notions of knowledge and strategy in the business context, one that is of practical importance to companies. After reviewing the extant literature, the book shows how the concept of knowledge strategies can be seen as a new perspective for exploring business strategies. It proposes a new approach that clarifies how planned and emergent knowledge strategies allow companies to make projections into the uncertain and unpredictable future that dominates today’s economy.

EU Security Strategies

Author: Spyros Economides
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315455277
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume offers a coherent analysis of the European Union’s security strategies within a comparative framework. If the EU is to survive and prosper as an effective security actor, it requires that greater attention be devoted to taking a cohesive and common position on the relationship between EU foreign policy means and goals. The major claim of this edited collection is that there is a European grand security strategy that disciplines member state security strategies. That grand strategy has two distinct substantive goals: (1) the preservation and expansion of the EU system of security governance; and (2) the implementation of specific strategies to meet internal and external threats and sources of insecurity. The EU has sought to develop a grand security strategy that not only accounts for the proliferation of threats possessing a military or non-military character and differentiates between core and peripheral regions of interest, but also addresses the requirements to bridge the increasingly blurred boundary between internal and external security threats and the necessary reconciliation of the competing security preferences of its member states. The empirical contributions to this volume examine the EU security strategies for specific issue areas and regional threat complexes. These case studies assess whether and how those strategies have consolidated or expanded the EU system of security governance, as well as their successes and limitations in meeting the security threats confronting the EU and its member-states. This volume will be of great interest to students of EU policy, foreign policy, security studies and IR.

Fifty Key Figures in Management

Author: Morgen Witzel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134201141
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Fifty Key Figures in Management is a collection of biographies of fifty people who have helped to make management what it is today - through their ideas, writings and teachings, through practical example and leadership, or both. Featuring business leaders such as Henry Ford, Jack Welch and Bill Gates, all of whom were pioneers in business pratice, the book also includes thinkers and consultants who have helped to redefine the way we think about management, such as Ohmae Kenichi, Fukuzawa Yukichi, Tom Peters and Charles Handy. Moreover, new and emerging aspects of management are covered through the inclusion of such cutting-edge thinkers as Arie de Geus, Max Boisot and Nonaka Ikujiro. Taken together, the fifty biographies presented here described how management emerged as a modern discipline and grew into its present form. Organization, strategy, marketing, production management, human resource management and knowledge management all come together to show how management is a multi-faceted discipline.

American Force

Author: Richard K. Betts
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023152188X
Format: PDF, ePub
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While American national security policy has grown more interventionist since the Cold War, Washington has also hoped to shape the world on the cheap. Misled by the stunning success against Iraq in 1991, administrations of both parties have pursued ambitious aims with limited force, committing the country's military frequently yet often hesitantly, with inconsistent justification. These ventures have produced strategic confusion, unplanned entanglements, and indecisive results. This collection of essays by Richard K. Betts, a leading international politics scholar, investigates the use of American force since the end of the Cold War, suggesting guidelines for making it more selective and successful. Betts brings his extensive knowledge of twentieth century American diplomatic and military history to bear on the full range of theory and practice in national security, surveying the Cold War roots of recent initiatives and arguing that U.S. policy has always been more unilateral than liberal theorists claim. He exposes mistakes made by humanitarian interventions and peace operations; reviews the issues raised by terrorism and the use of modern nuclear, biological, and cyber weapons; evaluates the case for preventive war, which almost always proves wrong; weighs the lessons learned from campaigns in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Vietnam; assesses the rise of China and the resurgence of Russia; quells concerns about civil-military relations; exposes anomalies within recent defense budgets; and confronts the practical barriers to effective strategy. Betts ultimately argues for greater caution and restraint, while encouraging more decisive action when force is required, and he recommends a more dispassionate assessment of national security interests, even in the face of global instability and unfamiliar threats.