Ending Zero Tolerance

Author: Derek W. Black
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 147988233X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ending Zero Tolerance answers the calls of grassroots communities pressing for integration and increased education funding with a complete rethinking of school discipline. In the era of zero tolerance, we are flooded with stories about schools issuing draconian punishments for relatively innocent behavior. One student was suspended for chewing a Pop-Tart into the shape of a gun. Another was expelled for cursing on social media from home. Suspension and expulsion rates have doubled over the past three decades as zero tolerance policies have become the normal response to a host of minor infractions that extend well beyond just drugs and weapons. Students from all demographic groups have suffered, but minority and special needs students have suffered the most. On average, middle and high schools suspend one out of four African American students at least once a year. The effects of these policies are devastating. Just one suspension in the ninth grade doubles the likelihood that a student will drop out. Fifty percent of students who drop out are subsequently unemployed. Eighty percent of prisoners are high school drop outs. The risks associated with suspension and expulsion are so high that, as a practical matter, they amount to educational death penalties, not behavioral correction tools. Most important, punitive discipline policies undermine the quality of education that innocent bystanders receive as well—the exact opposite of what schools intend. Derek Black, a former attorney with the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, weaves stories about individual students, lessons from social science, and the outcomes of courts cases to unearth a shockingly irrational system of punishment. While schools and legislatures have proven unable and unwilling to amend their failing policies, Ending Zero Tolerance argues for constitutional protections to check abuses in school discipline and lays out theories by which courts should re-engage to enforce students’ rights and support broader reforms.

Zero Tolerance Discipline Policies

Author: Brian Schoonover
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1440110735
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Mandatory punishments for disciplinary offenses have been included in school districts' Student Codes of Conduct since it was mandated by the Gun Free Schools Act of 1994. While zero tolerance policies were initially created to protect students and teachers from gun attacks in schools, the way in which these policies have actually been implemented in schools has prompted some parents, educators, and politicians to challenge them and call for zero tolerance policy reform. Since 1994, a majority of school districts have expanded their use of zero tolerance policies to include infractions other than those included to keep guns out of schools. Zero Tolerance Discipline Policies, the first comprehensive study of its kind, conducted by author Dr. Brian James Schoonover, examines the history of zero tolerance policies, including the practice of adding offenses other than the possession of guns to these policies. With practical, action oriented recommendations on ways policymakers and educational leaders can improve how students are disciplined, Zero Tolerance Discipline Policies offers recommendations on what should be included in a model Student Code of Conduct as well as a recommendation for starting a Three CHANCE (Changing Habits After New Character Education) system of educational placements to ensure all students are educated in a safe and appropriate facility.

The Chief Justice

Author: David J Danelski
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 0472119915
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Scholars use the most advanced methods in judicial studies to examine the role of Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court

Law and Religion in American History

Author: Mark Douglas McGarvie
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107150930
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book furthers dialogue on the separation of church and state with an approach that emphasizes intellectual history and the constitutional theory that underlies American society. Mark D. McGarvie explains that the founding fathers of America considered the right of conscience to be an individual right, to be protected against governmental interference. While the religion clauses enunciated this right, its true protection occurred in the creation of separate public and private spheres. Religion and the churches were placed in the private sector. Yet, politically active Christians have intermittently mounted challenges to this bifurcation in calling for a greater public role for Christian faith and morality in American society. Both students and scholars will learn much from this intellectual history of law and religion that contextualizes a four-hundred-year-old ideological struggle.

The Collapse of Parenting

Author: Leonard Sax
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465073840
Format: PDF, Docs
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In The Collapse of Parenting, physician, psychologist, and internationally acclaimed author Leonard Sax presents data documenting a dramatic decline in the achievement and psychological health of American children. Sax argues that rising levels of obesity, depression, and anxiety among young people—as well as the explosion in prescribing psychiatric medications to kids—can all be traced to parents letting their kids call the shots. Many parents are afraid of seeming too dictatorial and end up abdicating their authority rather than taking a stand with their own children. If kids refuse to eat anything green and demand pizza instead, some parents give in, inadvertently raising children who are more likely to become obese. If children are given smartphones and allowed to spend the bulk of their free time texting, playing video games, and surfing the Internet, they become increasingly reliant on peers and the media for guidance on how to live, rather than getting such guidance at home. And if they won't sit still in class or listen to adults, they're often prescribed medication, a quick fix that actually undermines their self-control. In short, Sax argues, parents are failing to prioritize the parent-child relationship and are allowing a child-peer dynamic to take precedence. The result is children who have no absolute standard of right and wrong, who lack discipline, and who look to their peers and the Internet for direction, instead of looking to their parents. But there is hope. Sax shows how parents can help their kids by reasserting their authority—by limiting time with screens, by encouraging better habits at the dinner table and at bedtime, and by teaching humility and perspective. Drawing on more than twenty-five years of experience as a family physician and psychologist, along with hundreds of interviews with children, parents, and teachers across the United States and around the world, Sax offers a blueprint parents can use to refresh and renew their relationships with their children to help their children thrive in an increasingly complicated world.

Human Trafficking

Author: Peter W. Blair (Jr)
Publisher: Lawyers & Judges Publishing
ISBN: 9781936360222
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"This book proposes unique solutions to human trafficking in the United States, Australia, and Europe that can be applied elsewhere in the world. It explores the intersection of human trafficking with other phenomena such as cults, drug trafficking, human rights, and gender issues. Importantly, this book unveils the cutting-edge Social Influence Model for admitting evidence of undue influence and coercion into court when trafficking victims find themselves on the wrong side of a prosecution."--Back cover.

Child Exploitation and Trafficking

Author: Virginia M. Kendall
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1442209828
Format: PDF
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Each year, more than two million children around the world fall victim to commercial sexual exploitation. The numbers of children sexually abused for non-commercial purposes are even higher. Put simply, the growing, increasingly-organized epidemic of child exploitation demands a coordinated response. The aim of this book is to bring some fresh thinking to this complicated area of the law, and to help erase some of its counterproductive mythology. The book provides the first comprehensive, practical introduction to the history and present-day reality of child sexual exploitation, as well as to the interconnected web of domestic and transnational federal laws and law enforcement efforts launched in response thereto. It is written from the distinctive perspective of those who have spent their careers in the trenches investigating, prosecuting, and adjudicating these intricate and commonly emotional cases. Relying on real-world examples, the authors offer proscriptive and descriptive practical advice and reform proposals aimed at those involved at all levels in this difficult area. Serving as a “first-line” resource for clear, practical thinking on the range of complex, and often misunderstood, investigative, prosecutorial, and rehabilitative issues surrounding child exploitation cases, this work is a must-have for anyone with interest in the protection of children from sexual exploitation and trafficking.

Child Exploitation and Trafficking

Author: Virginia M. Kendall
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442264802
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides an updated, comprehensive introduction to the moral, legal, and political realities of the epidemic of child sexual exploitation and labor trafficking. Written from the perspective of those who have spent their careers in the trenches, the book provides much-needed practical thinking for those involved in this challenging area.

Discipline Punish

Author: Michel Foucault
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307819299
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.

Eliminating corporal punishment

Author: Stuart N. Hart
Publisher: United Nations Educational
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In at least 60 states, beating children with sticks, belts and other implements is still authorized in schools. This publication is a tool for those who want to prevent the widespread practice of corporal punishment by educating parents, teachers and other professionals in the alternatives for disciplining children. Based on studies undertaken in different parts of the world, it clarifies the human rights imperative and logical dictates regarding the elimination of corporal punishment. The full text of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is also included. The book details practical steps for more constructive and effective child discipline and ongoing support material for long-term change.--Publisher's description.