Energy Policies of IEA Countries

Author: OCDE,
Publisher: Organization for Economic
ISBN: 9789264170865
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed.As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK's proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country's ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity - renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

OECD Economic Surveys New Zealand 2011

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264093176
Format: PDF, Docs
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OECD's 2011 periodic review of New Zealand's economy. This edition includes chapters covering sustainable growth, rebalancing housing markets, product market regulation, and green growth and climate change policies.

Energy Policies of IEA Countries

Author: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
Publisher: Organization for Economic
ISBN: 9789264094727
Format: PDF, Docs
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The International Energy Agency's periodic review of New Zealand's energy policies and programmes. This edition finds that New Zealand's strong commitment to liberalised energy markets has delivered a relatively high level of energy security and economic prosperity for consumers. Since the previous IEA review in 2006, the government has built on the success of existing policy mechanisms and implemented a number of far-reaching changes in the electricity sector and environmental policy. But progress in some sectors, such as energy efficiency, has not been as strong as anticipated. In mid-2010, the government commenced a review of the New Zealand Energy Strategy. The result is the publication of a new energy strategy, which establishes clear long-term policy priorities and energy-savings goals. Implementing these strategies will bring many new challenges, including attainment of the government's medium-term energy-savings targets. New Zealand enjoys the advantage of a diverse and balanced portfolio of renewable-energy resources, which contribute over 70% of electricity output - the third highest portion in IEA member countries. This resource base has the potential to deliver greater volumes of energy and the government aspires to increase this proportion to 90% of electricity generation by 2025. Meeting this target will bring many benefits but also tough challenges, such as maintaining a robust National Grid. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing New Zealand and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide New Zealand towards a more sustainable energy future.

Energy Networks and the Law

Author: Martha M. Roggenkamp
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199645039
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Energy supply depends on the means of transport to the consumer. Cables and pipelines are necessary to transport oil, gas, and electricity. Their construction and use depend on developments in technology, policies, and laws. This book analyzes the challenges confronting governments, regulators, and network operators in managing energy networks.

OECD Economic Surveys New Zealand 2011

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9789264093164
Format: PDF, Kindle
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OECD's 2011 periodic review of New Zealand's economy. This edition includes chapters covering sustainable growth, rebalancing housing markets, product market regulation, and green growth and climate change policies.

Energy Policies of Iea Countries

Author: International Energy Agency
Publisher: Organization for Economic
ISBN: 9789264170728
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The IEA's 2012 review of Australia's energy policies and programmes finds that Australia enjoys the benefit of abundant and diverse energy resources; it is the world's ninth-largest energy producer and is one of only three net energy exporters in the OECD. Its substantial conventional energy resource base includes coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. The country also enjoys extensive wind, solar and geothermal resources as well as large biomass and ocean energy potential.The energy sector is a significant contributor to the Australian economy. Exports have more than tripled over the past decade and surging economic and social expansion in relatively nearby emerging economies such as China and India has driven significant demand for Australian energy and mineral resources. This boom is widely forecast to continue in the coming decades.Late in 2011, the Australian government released a draft energy white paper, which sets out a comprehensive strategic policy framework to guide the development of the energy sector. Also in 2011, the Australian government announced a climate change plan including a wide-ranging package of clean-energy proposals and the introduction of a carbon price mechanism accompanied by significant levels of financial support for innovation in clean-energy technologies.The scale of Australia's energy policy ambitions is enormous and very costly even for a resource-rich nation. Significant investments will be needed for the clean-energy transition and building the infrastructure necessary to expand the domestic resource base. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Australia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

Energy Policies of IEA Countries Switzerland 2012 Review

Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Publisher: Organization for Economic
ISBN: 9789264171480
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This 2012 IEA review of Swiss energy policies finds that Switzerland has taken bold decisions to gradually phase out nuclear power and to reduce by a fifth its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 with domestic measures only. These are challenging objectives, and the country now needs to identify the most viable ways to meet them at least cost and minimum risk to energy security. In the absence of nuclear power, maintaining sufficient electricity capacity will require strong policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy. Such measures have already been outlined, but they will likely not be enough. For baseload generation, gas-fired power plants would be the simplest option. Treating their CO2 emissions the same way as in the neighbouring countries would be a strong positive incentive for investors. Because Switzerland's energy-related CO2 emissions come mostly from oil use in transport and space heating, action is most needed in these areas. Commendably, the country is making polluters pay by using a CO2 tax for financing decarbonisation efforts in space heating. Stronger efforts will be needed to reduce emissions from private car use, however. Since the 2007 IEA energy policy review, Switzerland has made clear progress in electricity market reform. Moving to a fully open market by 2015 would be a further positive step. The system of regulated end-user prices, however, is subsidising electricity consumption at a time when low-carbon power supply is becoming more constrained and expensive. It should be reconsidered. Switzerland should also continue to take an increasingly European approach to developing its electricity infrastructure, to its own benefit and to that of its neighbours.

Energy Policies of Iea Countries

Author: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Publisher: Organization for Economic
ISBN: 9789264098244
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republic's energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009. Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of gas and electricity interconnections, is an essential step towards meeting the dual policy objectives of enhancing energy security and market competition. The Slovak Republic has moved forward with coupling its electricity market with the Czech Republic's, and supports the construction of a North-South pipeline connection that would link planned LNG terminals in Croatia and Poland, including an interconnector to Hungary. Despite a sharp decline in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions since 1990, the Slovak Republic remains a GHG-intensive economy by OECD standards, with energy-related CO2 emissions accounting for over 70% of total GHG emissions. The country must continue to implement policies that ease the transition to a low-carbon economy. Nuclear power and renewable energy can play crucial roles in the Slovak Republic's efforts to decarbonise its electricity production. Significant efforts can also be made to improve energy efficiency, especially in the transport and building sectors. District heating is a notable area with huge potential for reducing national GHG emissions. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing the Slovak Republic, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.