Entropy And Its Physical Meaning

Author: J. S. Dugdale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748405695
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This text gives students a clear and easily understood introduction to entropy - a central concept in thermodynamics, but one which is often regarded as the most difficult to grasp. Professor Dugdale first presents a classical and historical view of entropy, looking in detail at the scientists who developed the concept, and at how they arrived at their ideas. This is followed by a statistical treatment which provides a more physical portrait of entropy, relating it to disorder and showing how physical and chemical systems tend to states of order at low temperatures. Dugdale includes here a brief account of some of the more intriguing manifestations of order in properties such as superconductivity and superfluidity.Entropy and Its Physical Meaning also includes a number of exercises which can be used for both self- learning and class work. It is intended to provide a complete understanding of the concept of entropy, making it valuable reading for undergraduates in physics, physical sciences and engineering, and for students studying thermodynamics within other science courses such as meteorology, biology and medicine.

Entropy and the Second Law

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 981462389X
Format: PDF
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This book presents a clear and readable description of one of the most mysterious concepts of physics: Entropy. It contains a self-learning kit that guides the reader in understanding the concepts of entropy. In the first part, the reader is asked to play the familiar twenty-Question game. Once the reader feels comfortable with playing this game and acquires proficiency in playing the game effectively (intelligently), he or she will be able to capture the elusive and used-to-be mysterious concept of entropy. There will be no more speculative or arbitrary interpretations, nor “older” or “modern” views of entropy. This book will guide readers in choosing their own interpretation of entropy. Video intro on the Bestsellers on Entropy by Arieh Ben-Naim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5fOsKyOlHw Request Inspection Copy Contents:Introduction: From Heat Engines to Disorder, Information Spreading, Freedom, and More…Forget about Entropy for a While, Let us Go and Play iGamesThe Astounding Emergence of the Entropy of a Classical Ideal Gas out of Shannon's Measure of InformationExamples and Their Interpretations. Challenges for any Descriptor of EntropyFinally, Let Us Discuss the Most Mysterious Second Law of Thermodynamics Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry and physics, academics and lay persons.

Essential Engineering Thermodynamics

Author: Yumin Zhang
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681734249
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Engineering Thermodynamics is a core course for students majoring in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Before taking this course, students usually have learned Engineering Mechanics—Statics and Dynamics, and they are used to solving problems with calculus and differential equations. Unfortunately, these approaches do not apply for Thermodynamics. Instead, they have to rely on many data tables and graphs to solve problems. In addition, many concepts are hard to understand, such as entropy. Therefore, most students feel very frustrated while taking this course. The key concept in Engineering Thermodynamics is state-properties: If one knows two properties, the state can be determined, as well as the other four properties. Unlike most textbooks, the first two chapters of this book introduce thermodynamic properties and laws with the ideal gas model, where equations can be engaged. In this way, students can employ their familiar approaches, and thus can understand them much better. In order to help students understand entropy in depth, interpretation with statistical physics is introduced. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss control-mass and control-volume processes with general fluids, where the data tables are used to solve problems. Chapter 5 covers a few advanced topics, which can also help students understand the concepts in thermodynamics from a broader perspective.

The Four Laws That Do Not Drive The Universe

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813223472
Format: PDF
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This book provides a clear and mystery-free presentation of the central concepts in thermodynamics — probability, entropy, Helmholtz energy and Gibbs energy. It presents the concepts of entropy, free energy and various formulations of the Second Law in a friendly, simple language. It is devoid of all kinds of fancy and pompous statements made by authors of popular science books who write on this subject. The book focuses on the Four Laws of Thermodynamics. As it is said in the dedication page, this book is addressed to readers who might have already been exposed to Atkins' book having a similar title. It challenges both the title, and the contents of Atkins' book, Four Laws That Drive The Universe. One can glean from the title of this new book that the author's views are diametrically opposed to the views of Atkins. The book is addressed to any curious and intelligent reader. It aims to tickle, and hopefully to satisfy your curiosity. It also aims to challenge your gray matter, and to enrich your knowledge by telling you some facts and ideas regarding the Four Laws of Thermodynamics.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy 2nd Edition Robert Audi 1999

Author: Cambridge University Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION THE WIDESPREAD POSITIVE RECEPTION of the First Edition has been gratifying, and a number of translations are proceeding, into Chinese, Italian, Korean, Russian, and Spanish at this writing. The field of philosophy has expanded, however, and even apart from that I have become aware of several respects in which the Dictionary can better serve its readers. The result is a multitude of expansions in standing entries and the addition of some four hundred new entries. This extended coverage required sixty new authors, nearly half of them from outside North America. The new entries range across the entire field of philosophy. We have made a special effort to increase our coverage of Continental philosophy and of subfields where growth is exceptionally rapid, such as ethics, philosophy of mind, and political philosophy. We have also added numerous cross-references. The cross-references are an element in the volume that many readers have said they found not only valuable in enhancing their initial understanding of an entry, but also welcome as a source of intriguing connections and as an invitation to browse. In addition to citations of many living philosophers in the Index of Names, there is now selective coverage of a number of living philosophers in separate entries. With very few exceptions, this (quite small) group includes only thinkers in their mid-sixties or older. This constraint on inclusion is in part dictated by the difficulty of providing an adequate portrait of philosophers still actively advancing their positions, and it has required omitting a number of distinguished younger philosophers still making major changes in their views. Even with much older thinkers we do not presuppose that there will be no significant developments, but only a greater likelihood of discerning a rounded position that is unlikely to be abandoned. In the difficult – and in a sense impossible – task of determining entries on living thinkers, advice was sought from both the Board and many other sources. We were also guided in part by the extent to which contributors to the First Edition relied on references to certain living thinkers. Given the Dictionary’s overall purposes and its wide audience, which includes many readers outside philosophy, selection was weighted toward writers whom many non-philosophers may want to look up, and some weight was also given to considerations of diversity. In keeping with the overall purposes of the volume and the diversity of its readers, we have also decided not to undertake the large task of covering either living contributors to highly specialized subfields – such as logic or computer theory or much of philosophy of science – or philosophers whose main contributions are to the history of philosophy. There are, however, many important philosophers in these fields. A number are cited in the Index, which also lists many of the thinkers who are mentioned by one or more contributors but are not subjects of separate entries. xxxiii In taking account of the responses from readers of the First Edition, we have tried to do as much as possible without making the Dictionary too bulky for a single volume. So much of the response has been positive that although many standing entries have been revised, we have sought to make improvements in the book mainly by adding new ones. A few readers expressed puzzlement or disappointment that we do not have a bibliography at the end of each entry. We do generally have references to primary works by the thinker being portrayed or, in some cases, secondary works noteworthy in their own right. Our policy here is shaped partly by severe space constraints and, especially given those, by a desire to avoid directing readers to inadequately representative sources or works that may soon become obsolete. It is also based on a sense of the difference between a dictionary and an encyclopedia. Granting that this difference is not sharp, a dictionary is above all definitional, whereas encyclopedias are mainly informational, historical, and bibliographical. A dictionary clarifies basic concepts in a way encyclopedias need not. Indeed, some encyclopedias are best understood with the help of a good dictionary; some are even difficult to read without one. As with the First Edition, I would be happy to receive comments or corrections and will undertake to file them and to send them to the appropriate author(s). Many of the Dictionary’s contributors, as well as a number of careful readers, sent suggested corrections, and most of the suggestions have been followed or taken into account in preparing this edition. I should reiterate that, again as with the First Edition, these years of intensive work with a cross section of the world’s best philosophers have given me a strong sense that the profession of philosophy has great vitality and intellectual strength. In both contributors and advisors, I have seen a steadfast commitment to scholarship, an abiding concern with accuracy and theoretical depth, an abundance of philosophical imagination, and a fidelity to high standards that prevails over the often alluring currents of schools or fashions or polemics. It is perhaps not appropriate for me to dedicate a collaborative volume of this kind, but if I were to do so, I would dedicate it to the contributors, in the hope that it may give to them and to all its readers some of the pleasure that the editing has given to me. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In constructing this volume over a number of years, I have benefited from more comments and reactions than I can possibly remember, and I regret any omissions in the expressions of gratitude that follow. The Board of Advisors deserves hearty thanks for a major part in the selection of new entries and new contributors. I would particularly like to thank William P. Alston, Arthur W. Burks, Fred Dretske, Terence Irwin, the late Norman Kretzmann, John Lucas, Sally McConnell-Ginet, Alexander Nehamas, Onora O’Neill, John Perry, Richard Rorty, John Searle, Raimo Tuomela, and Bas van Fraassen, many of whom repeatedly provided comments or advice. The editorial advice of Terence Moore, Executive Editor at the Press, and my regular discussions with him on matters of policy and design, have been incalculably valuable. Neither edition would have been possible without his contributions. The Second Edition has benefited from the advice of many others, including a number who helped in preparing the First Edition. Among these are John PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xxxiv Corcoran, Gary Gutting, George Schumm, Kwong-loi Shun, and Keith Yandell, all of whom provided editorial advice and recommended adding certain entries in their areas of philosophical work or revising others. Corcoran deserves a great deal of credit for both identifying and filling gaps. Comments and advice were also contributed by more people than I can name. They include Margaret Atherton, Claudio de Almeida, Lynne Rudder Baker, Joseph Bien, Noël Carroll, Roger Crisp, Wayne Davis, Philip Gasper, Berys Gaut, Lenn Goodman, Paul Griffiths, Oscar Haac, Mike Harnish, John Heil, Brad Hooker, Patricia Huntington, Dale Jacquette, Robert Kane, George Kline, Manfred Kuehn, Steven Kuhn, Brian McLaughlin, William Mann, Ausonio Marras, Al Martinich, Alfred Mele, Joseph Mendola, David W. Miller, Paul Moser, James Murphy, Louis Pojman, William Prior, Wesley Salmon, Mark Sainsbury, Charles Sayward, Jerome Schneewind, Calvin Schrag, David Sedley, Roger Shiner, Marcus Singer, Brian Skyrms, M. A. Stewart, William Wainwright, Paul Weirich, and, especially, Hugh McCann, Ernest Sosa, and J. D. Trout. Conscientious reviewers as well as colleagues and readers who contributed comments have been of help to me in expanding and revising the First Edition. Among the readers – mainly philosophers – I particularly want to thank Alasdair MacIntrye, Ruth Marcus, Dan Mueller, Eleonore Stump, and Mark van Roojen. Editorial and technical assistance was provided by a number of people. At the Press, I have received help or advice from Michael Agnes, Janis Bolster – who oversaw the entire process of correcting the proofs – Alan Gold, Kenneth Greenhall, Cathy Hennessy, Nicholas Mirra, Christine Murray, Gwen Seznec, and others. W. M. Havighurst again served as the main copyeditor for the Press; his skillful and painstaking work has been of great help throughout. Allison Nespor and my assistants in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Jonathan Evans and Xiaomei Yang, have also contributed. The support of the University of Nebraska and my colleagues in the Philosophy Department has been indispensable. I am also grateful for assistance from the Philosophy Department at Santa Clara University during my term as Distinguished Professor of the College of Arts and Sciences in 1999. As in the case of the First Edition, I owe an incalculable debt to my family. My wife, Marie-Louise, gave me both literary advice and help with organization of files and some of the many mailings. She and my children have also cheerfully tolerated the interruptions and problems that are inevitable in doing even a second edition of a work of this scope. Robert Audi Lincoln, Nebraska June 1999 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

Concise Chemical Thermodynamics 2nd Edition

Author: A.P.H. Peters
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 020349427X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The first edition of Concise Chemical Thermodynamics proved to be a very popular introduction to a subject many undergraduate students perceive as a difficult topic, because it presented thermodynamics with practical chemical examples in a way that used little mathematics. In this second edition the text has been carefully revised to ensure the same approach is maintained. Students are led to an understanding of Gibbs free energy early on, and the concept is demonstrated in several different fields. The book includes discussions of experimental equilibrium data, an introduction to electrochemistry, a brief survey of Ellingham diagrams, and a treatment of entropy without reference to the Carnot cycle. A new chapter on computer-based methods in thermodynamics has been added to reflect current technological trends and practices. Thermodynamic data has been revised in light of information provided by the work of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe, to ensure that the symbols and units reflect the latest IUPAC rules. In addition, the problems and examples have been updated, replaced, and amplified to reflect current understanding and concerns. Undergraduate students of chemistry will find this an ideal introduction to chemical thermodynamics.

Encyclopedia of Energy Ec Ge

Author: Cutler J. Cleveland
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780121764821
Format: PDF
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Provides information about all aspects of energy, covering a wealth of areas throughout the natural, social and engineering sciences.

Philosophical Problems of Space and Time

Author: Adolf Grünbaum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940102622X
Format: PDF, ePub
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It is ten years since Adolf Griinbaum published the first edition of this book. It was promptly recognized to be one of the few major works in the philosophy of the natural sciences of this generation. In part, this is so because Griinbaum has chosen a problem basic both to philosophy and to the natural sciences - the nature of space and time; and in part, this is so because he so admirably exemplifies that Aristotelian devotion to the intimate and mutual dependence of actual science and philosophical understanding. More than this, however, the quality of his work derives from his achievement in combining detail with scope. The problems of space and time have been among the most difficult in contemporary and classical thought, and Griinbaum has been responsible to the full depth and complexity of these difficulties. This revised and enlarged second edition is a work in progress, in the tradition of reflective analysis of modern science of such figures as Ehrenfest and Reichenbach. In publishing this work among the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, we hope to contribute to and encourage that broad tradition of natural philosophy which is marked by the close collaboration of philoso phers and scientists. To this end, we have published the proceedings of our Colloquia, of meetings and conferences here and abroad, as well as the works of single authors.