Environmental Risk Analysis

Author: Louis Theodore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498714404
Format: PDF
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A Training Tool for the Environmental Risk Professional Environmental Risk Analysis: Probability Distribution Calculations defines the role that probability distributions play in risk analysis, and gives direction on how to measure and compare the magnitude of risk more efficiently. Designed for the practicing environmental engineer and scientist, this book clearly explains the key fundamentals, principles, and applications of probability distributions in environmental risk analysis. Based on years of research and the author’s own experience, the book provides nearly 200 illustrative examples utilizing probability distributions, as well as numerous solved problems that involve applications in the manufacturing, chemical, refining, power/utilities, travel/aerospace, pharmaceutical, anti-terrorism/military, and nanotechnology industries. It offers an in-depth discussion of the Weibull distribution, which describes failure rate as a function of time. It also details the author’s recent efforts to improve on Weibull’s work, and covers other continuous probability distributions that can apply to risk assessment/analysis. The book addresses environmental risk calculations that involve both discrete and continuous probability distributions. It focuses on discrete distributions that include binomial, multinomial, hypergeometric, and Poisson; and continuous distributions that include normal, lognormal, exponential, Weibull, F, and chi-square distribution. Includes a complete overview of environmental risk and covers environmental risk-related topics Presents a simplified approach to the industrial application of environmental risk analysis and probability distributions Offers a practical understanding of environmental risk analysis calculations involving probability distributions Environmental Risk Analysis: Probability Distribution Calculations provides a working knowledge of the principles and applications needed to solve real-world problems relevant to environmental risk analysis and probability distributions. This book serves as a valuable resource for practicing professionals in environmental science and engineering.

Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: Ted Simon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466598298
Format: PDF, ePub
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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.

Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective

Author: Lawrence A. Kapustka
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470593011
Format: PDF, ePub
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An important guide to assessing and managing the environment from a landscape perspective Ecological relationships are nested within the landscape. Identifying the relevant spatial and temporal scales is critical for an effective understanding of ecological functions that human societies depend upon. Moreover, human encroachment into natural areas, or changes in climate, can alter spatial relationships, which in turn can negatively affect vital plant and wildlife patterns—and weaken economic structures needed to sustain human societies. This book is the first to combine multiple disciplines into one cohesive strategy to study these crucial connections, and looks toward building a social paradigm that embraces the dynamics of ecological systems. This book: Integrates landscape ecology, environmental risk assessment, valuation of ecological goods and services, and environmental management decision processes into one single source Includes chapters on quantitative measures, Bayesian modeling,¿economic analysis, and sustainable landscapes Covers marine, forest, agricultural, and pharmaceutical risk assessment Has a chapter on predicting climate change risk to ecosystems Has a companion ftp site with color graphics, animations, and risk assessment tools With material that is accessible across all knowledge levels, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective moves beyond looking solely at chemical contaminants to diagnose environmental threats, and aims to accomplish practical risk assessment in a manner that supports long-term sustainable management.

Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: C. Richard Cothern
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351087703
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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What data is needed to complete a quantitative risk assessment for environmental and public health? How accurate does a quantitative risk assessment have to be? How confident does a risk assessor need to be when presenting risk estimates to a decision maker? Find out the answers to these questions and more with Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment, the first major commercial publication that describes the current state of the art in comparative environmental risk assessment. This book examines the problems involved in such analyses and offers ideas and thoughts for future development. The book examines major problems in this area and covers all aspects of the environment, including human and ecological health. Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment is an excellent guide for risk assessment experts, environmentalists, regulators, planners, legislators, scientists in industry, instructors, and students.

Quality Assurance of Exposure Models for Environmental Risk Assessment of Substances

Author: Stefan Schwartz
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3638103749
Format: PDF
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Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2000 in the subject Mathematics - Applied Mathematics, grade: 1,0 (A), University of Osnabrück (Institute for Environmental System Research, Mathematics/Computer Science), 247 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Summary Environmental risk assessment of chemical substances in the European Union is based on a harmonised scheme. The required models and parameters are laid down in the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) and are implemented in the EUSES software. Although the results may have a considerable ecological and economic impact, guidance is rarely given on the applicability of the framework. To fill this gap, an evaluation study of the TGD exposure models was carried out. In particular, the models for estimating chemical intake by humans were investigated. These models, which are a key component in risk assessment, involve a quantification of human contact with environmental contamination in various media of exposure through various exposure pathways. The objective of this study was two-fold: firstly, to develop an evaluation methodology, since no appropriate approach is available in the scientific literature. Secondly, to elaborate applicability and limitations of the models and to provide proposals for their improvement. The principles of model evaluation in terms of quality assurance, model validation and software evaluation were elaborated and a suitable evaluation protocol for chemical risk assessment models was developed. Since scientific theories and the mathematical models embedded therein cannot be proved as true, a pragmatic meaning of validation is required, of which the primary purpose is to increase the level of confidence placed in the model. The accuracy of the model outcome is a necessary, but insufficient criterion for the quality assurance of models. A wider approach is required which examines the scientific inference that can be made about models with regard to their intended purpose. By reviewing the literature on the validation problem, it was found that all the facets of validation can be assigned to generic (internal) and task-specific (external) properties of a model. In this context, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are essential to tackle the issues of uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis aims to ascertain how a given model depends upon the information fed into it. Uncertainty analysis aims to quantify the uncertainty regarding what comes out of the model. It was argued that targeted uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis, as a part of it, is capable of reducing critical uncertainties and represents an essential contribution for assuring the quality of a model. [...]

Environmental and Health Risk Assessment and Management

Author: Paolo Ricci
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402037767
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is about the legal, economical, and practical assessment and management of risky activities arising from routine, catastrophic environmental and occupational exposures to hazardous agents. It includes a discussion of aspects of US and European Union law concerning risky activities, and then develops the economic analyses that are relevant to implementing choices within a supply and demand framework. The book also discusses exposure-response and time-series models used in assessing air and water pollution, as well as probabilistic cancer models, including toxicological compartmental, pharmaco-kinetic models and epidemiological relative risks and odds ratios-based models. Statistical methods to measure agreement, correlation and discordance are also developed. The methods and criteria of decision-analysis, including several measures of value of information (VOI) conclude the expositions. This book is an excellent text for students studying risk assessment and management.

Health and Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: P. F. Ricci
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483286312
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Process and input-output analysis have emerged as the two principal methods of analyzing health risks of energy technologies. This book describes applications and differences between these two methods with discussions of sources or error and uncertainty, data limitations and some solutions to common problems. Its goals are to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods and to provide a basis for standardizing risk assessment for energy policy analysis. Sections of the book describe risk analysis and develop issues common to both the process and input-output methods, describe data bases and their limitations, discuss use of environmental models for generating environmental information not available in data bases, describe applications of the methods in case studies, and discuss the state-of-the-art of the two models and opportunities for combining them to take advantage of their relative strengths and weaknesses.

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment

Author: Louis Theodore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439868875
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations explains how to evaluate and apply environmental health and hazard risk assessment calculations in a variety of real-life settings. Using a wealth of examples and case studies, the book helps readers develop both a theoretical understanding and a working knowledge of the principles of health, safety, and accident management. Learn the Fundamentals of Health, Safety, and Accident Management The book takes a pragmatic approach to risk assessment, identifying problems and outlining solutions. Organized into four parts, the text: Presents an overview of the history of environmental health and hazard problems, legal considerations, and emergency planning and response Tackles the broad subject of health risk assessment, discussing toxicology, exposure, and health risk characterization Examines hazard risk assessment in significant detail—from problem identification, probability, consequence, and characterization of hazards/accidents to the fundamentals of applicable statistics theory Uses case studies to demonstrate the applications and calculations of risk analysis for real systems Incorporate Health and Safety in Process Design The book assumes only a basic background in physics, chemistry, and mathematics, making it suitable for students and those new to the field. It is also a valuable reference for practicing engineers, scientists, technicians, technical managers, and others tasked with ensuring that plant and equipment operations meet applicable standards and regulations. A clear and comprehensive resource, this book offers guidance for those who want to reduce or eliminate the environmental health effects and accidents that can result in loss of life, materials, and property.

Risk Assessment Methods

Author: V.T. Covello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489912169
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Much has already been written about risk assessment. Epidemiologists write books on how risk assessment is used to explore the factors that influence the distribution of disease in populations of people. Toxicologists write books on how risk assess ment involves exposing animals to risk agents and concluding from the results what risks people might experience if similarly exposed. Engineers write books on how risk assessment is utilized to estimate the risks of constructing a new facility such as a nuclear power plant. Statisticians write books on how risk assessment may be used to analyze mortality or accident data to determine risks. There are already many books on risk assessment-the trouble is that they all seem to be about different sUbjects! This book takes another approach. It brings together all the methods for assessing risk into a common framework, thus demonstrating how the various methods relate to one another. This produces four important benefits: • First, it provides a comprehensive reference for risk assessment. This one source offers readers concise explanations of the many methods currently available for describing and quantifying diverse types of risks. • Second, it consistently evaluates and compares available risk assessment methods and identifies their specific strengths and limitations. Understand ing the limitations of risk assessment methods is important. The field is still in its infancy, and the problems with available methods are disappoint ingly numerous. At the same time, risk assessment is being used.

Subjective Probability Distribution Elicitation in Cost Risk Analysis

Author: Lionel A. Galway
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833040111
Format: PDF, ePub
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One approach to expressing the uncertainty in a cost estimate is probability distribution, and cost analysts have proposed getting such information from subjective probability distributions elicited from experts. This technical report offers a selective review of the literature of probability elicitation, both in the fields of psychology and statistics and in the cost risk field, and insights from senior people in the cost risk community.