Environmental Risks and the Media

Author: Barbara Adam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134610920
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Environmental Risks and the Media explores the ways in which environmental risks, threats and hazards are represented, transformed and contested by the media. At a time when popular conceptions of the environment as a stable, natural world with which humanity interferes are being increasingly contested, the medias methods of encouraging audiences to think about environmental risks - from the BSE or 'mad cow' crisis to global climate change - are becoming more and more controversial. Examining large-scale disasters, as well as 'everyday' hazards, the contributors consider the tensions between entertainment and information in media coverage of the environment. How do the media frame 'expert', 'counter-expert' and 'lay public' definitions of environmental risk? What role do environmental pressure groups like Greenpeace or 'eco-warriors' and 'green guerrillas' play in shaping what gets covered and how? Does the media emphasis on spectacular events at the expense of issue-sensitive reporting exacerbate the public tendency to overestimate sudden and violent risks and underestimate chronic long-term ones?

Risk Assessment Methods

Author: V.T. Covello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489912169
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Much has already been written about risk assessment. Epidemiologists write books on how risk assessment is used to explore the factors that influence the distribution of disease in populations of people. Toxicologists write books on how risk assess ment involves exposing animals to risk agents and concluding from the results what risks people might experience if similarly exposed. Engineers write books on how risk assessment is utilized to estimate the risks of constructing a new facility such as a nuclear power plant. Statisticians write books on how risk assessment may be used to analyze mortality or accident data to determine risks. There are already many books on risk assessment-the trouble is that they all seem to be about different sUbjects! This book takes another approach. It brings together all the methods for assessing risk into a common framework, thus demonstrating how the various methods relate to one another. This produces four important benefits: • First, it provides a comprehensive reference for risk assessment. This one source offers readers concise explanations of the many methods currently available for describing and quantifying diverse types of risks. • Second, it consistently evaluates and compares available risk assessment methods and identifies their specific strengths and limitations. Understand ing the limitations of risk assessment methods is important. The field is still in its infancy, and the problems with available methods are disappoint ingly numerous. At the same time, risk assessment is being used.

Environmental Risks

Author: Gisela Böhm
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780762308064
Format: PDF, Docs
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Environmental risks are among the most serious challenges of today's societies. Virtually all environmental risks are anthropogenic. The consequences of past decisions made by individuals, business, and governments have already devastated many of the earth's ecological systems and there is an ongoing discussion about the potential effects of environmental change and whether the earth will still provide a livable environment for future generations. The past decade has seen a dramatic growth in publications that focus on environmental issues. However, this literature has been dominated by the natural sciences and research focuses on obtaining more accurate information about natural and ecological processes, with the tacit assumption that this information will prove useful to improve individual, organizational, and societal decision making. This volume focuses on the psychological, sociological, and cultural aspects of environmental risks that have not been given adequate and integrated attention in the past. Understanding of the psychological, social, cultural, and political forces will determine the successes and failures of environmental risk management. In particular, public policy could be improved by the integration of more accurate assumptions about people's cognitions, attitudes, and emotions towards environmental risks.

Human and Environmental Risks of Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds

Author: Richard E. Tucker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146133599X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Increasing international concern is being expressed regarding the contamination of the environment with polychlorinated dibenzo-p dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans because certain of these chemicals have been shown to be highly toxic to animals and are ubiquitous in the environment. They are known to be distributed as contaminants of commercial products and as by-products from com bustion processes. A considerable volume of information has accumulated on these chemicals in the past two decades, particularly for the most toxic of them, 2,3,7,8-tetrach1orodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). However, this body of knowledge has not succeeded in resolving genuine judgmental differences among experts in the field as to the degree of hazard to human health and the environment. In light of the widespread public concern, it is clearly imperative to come to grips with the continuing scientific controversy, to review the data, assess the issues, to see where areas of agreement exist, and where further research is needed to resolve remaining areas of disagree ment. This volume represents an effort to contribute to these goals.

Media Environment and the Network Society

Author: A. Anderson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137314087
Format: PDF
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The news media has become a key arena for staging environmental conflicts. Through a range of illuminating examples ranging from climate change to oil spills, Media, Environment and the Network Society provides a timely and far-reaching analysis of the media politics of contemporary environmental debates.

Produced Water

Author: Kenneth Lee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461400462
Format: PDF, ePub
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A state-of-the-art review of scientific knowledge on the environmental risk of ocean discharge of produced water and advances in mitigation technologies. In offshore oil and gas operations, produced water (the water produced with oil or gas from a well) accounts for the largest waste stream (in terms of volume discharged). Its discharge is continuous during oil and gas production and typically increases in volume over the lifetime of an offshore production platform. Produced water discharge as waste into the ocean has become an environmental concern because of its potential contaminant content. Environmental risk assessments of ocean discharge of produced water have yielded different results. For example, several laboratory and field studies have shown that significant acute toxic effects cannot be detected beyond the "point of discharge" due to rapid dilution in the receiving waters. However, there is some preliminary evidence of chronic sub-lethal impacts in biota associated with the discharge of produced water from oil and gas fields within the North Sea. As the composition and concentration of potential produced water contaminants may vary from one geologic formation to another, this conference also highlights the results of recent studies in Atlantic Canada.

Assessment and Management of Environmental Risks

Author: Igor Linkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401009872
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Managing environmental contamination requires decision makers to weigh eXlstmg risks against the potential effects of implementing environmental policies - considering both the benefits and disruptions that may result from different actions. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Lisbon was an important step in the development and application of cost efficient methods of risk assessment especiaIly within the constraints of a budget. The goal of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for risk assessment to serve as a unified and unifying technique in addressing a wide range of environmental problems. Papers presented in this book discuss issues ranging from specific and local studies (specific site, ecosystem, pollutant) to global decision and management frameworks (watersheds, regions, integration of multiple poIlutants and stressors); they develop a range of approaches starting from specific methods to widely applied public policies (Figure 1). The papers show that the use of risk assessment can provide the scientific basis for environmentaIly sound and cost-efficient policies, strategies, and solutions to our environmental chaIlenges. The organization of the Proceedings reflects sessions and discussions during the workshop. The papers in the introductory Chapter summarize the positions of Drs. Glenn Suter (EPA) and Jim Wilson (Resources for the Future) regarding whether the use of often-expensive risk assessments in developing countries can be justified, given evolving regulatory institutions and limited resources.

Sustainable Living with Environmental Risks

Author: Nobuhiro Kaneko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431548041
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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We are not free from environmental risks that accompany the development of human societies. Modern economic development has accelerated environmental pollution, caused loss of natural habitats, and modified landscapes. These environmental changes have impacted natural systems: water and heat circulation, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity. These changes in natural systems degrade ecosystem services and subsequently increase environmental risks for humans. Environmental risks, therefore, are not only human health risks by pollution, climatic anomalies and natural disasters, but also degradation of ecosystem services on which most people are relying for their lives. We cannot entirely eliminate the risks, because it is not possible to attain zero impact on the environment, but we need to find a mechanism that minimizes environmental risks for human sustainably. This is the idea of the interdisciplinary framework of “environmental risk management” theory, which advocates harmony between economic development and environmental conservation. Based on this theory, the Sustainable Living with Environmental Risk (SLER) programme, adopted by the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) as one of its strategic programmes, has been training graduate students at the Yokohama National University, Japan, from 2009 to 2013 to become future environmental leaders who will take the initiative in reducing the level of environmental risks and in protecting natural resources in the developing nations of Asia and Africa. This book provides students and teachers of this new academic field with a comprehensive coverage of case studies of environmental risks and their practical management technologies not only in Japan but also in developing nations in Asia and Africa.

Hyping Health Risks

Author: Geoffrey C. Kabat
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231141491
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The media constantly bombard us with news of health hazards lurking in our everyday lives. But many of these hazards turn out to have been greatly overblown. According to author and epidemiologist Geoffrey C. Kabat, this hyping of low-level environmental hazards leads to needless anxiety and confusion on the part of the public about which exposures have important effects on health and which are likely to have minimal or no effect. Kabat approaches health scares as "social facts" and shows that a variety of factors can contribute to the inflaming of a hazard. ... By means of four case studies, Kabat demonstrates how a powerful confluence of interests can lead to overstating or distorting scientific evidence. He examines the health risks of pollutants sucha s DDT as a cause of breast cancer, electromagnetic fields from power lines, radon within residences, and secondhand tobacco smoke. Tracing the trajectory of each of these hazards from its initial emergence to the present, Kabat shows how publication of more rigorous studies and critical assessments ultimately helped put the hazard in perspective.--Book jacket flap.