Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

Author: Paul Arthur Berkman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400747136
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This seminal book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop at the University of Cambridge with Russian co-directorship, enabling the first formal dialogue between NATO and Russia about security issues in the Arctic Ocean. Involving interdisciplinary participation with experts from 17 nations, including all of the Arctic states, this workshop itself reflects progress in Arctic cooperation and collaboration. Interests now are awakening globally to take advantage of extensive energy, shipping, fishing and tourism opportunities in the Arctic Ocean as it is being transformed from a permanent sea-ice cap to a seasonally ice-free sea. This environmental state-change is introducing inherent risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are centralized among the Arctic states and indigenous peoples with repercussions globally. Responding with urgency, environmental security is presented as an "integrated approach for assessing and responding to the risks as well as the opportunities generated by an environmental state-change." In this book – diverse perspectives on environmental security in the Arctic Ocean are shared in chapters from high-level diplomats, parliamentarians and government officials of Arctic and non-Arctic states; leaders of Arctic indigenous peoples organizations; international law advisors from Arctic states as well as the United Nations; directors of inter-governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations; managers of multi-national corporations; political scientists, historians and economists; along with Earth system scientists and oceanographers. Building on the “common arctic issues” of “sustainable development and environmental protection” established by the Arctic Council – environmental security offers an holistic approach to assess opportunities and risks as well as develop infrastructure responses with law of the sea as the key “international legal framework” to “promote the peaceful uses” of the Arctic Ocean. With vision for future generations, environmental security is a path to balance national interests and common interests in the Arctic Ocean for the lasting benefit of all.

Environmental Security and Ecoterrorism

Author: Hami Alpas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400712375
Format: PDF
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In recent years, the concept of environmental security has been adapted to include preparedness for acts of ecoterrorism. This latter term has now become synonymous with environmental terrorism where the perpetrator uses the environment as a weapon to harm an opponent. The intended outcome is usually large-scale deaths, severe damage to the environment, and instilling fear in the general population. This book explores various facets of ecoterrorism including the role of the state in pursuing and maintaining environmental security, a review of the concept of ecoterrorism, food security challenges and weaknesses, technological countermeasures to enable rapid detection or response, and existing pollution sources and hazards that may serve as targets for terrorist acts. In sum, this volume provides a useful overview for both the layperson and experienced researchers.

Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub Arctic Conditions

Author: Jacques Nihoul
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1402094604
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. Such substantial additional melting of Arctic and Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets would raise the sea level worldwide, flooding the coastal areas where many of the world's population lives. Studies, led by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University of Arizona, show that greenhouse gas increases over the next century could warm the Arctic by 3-5°C in summertime. Thus, Arctic summers by 2100 may be as warm as they were nearly 130,000 years ago, when sea levels eventually rose up to 6 m higher than today.

Northern Sustainabilities Understanding and Addressing Change in the Circumpolar World

Author: Gail Fondahl
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319461508
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This edited volume examines the multiple dimensions of sustainability in the Circumpolar North, a territory facing unprecedented environmental and social challenges at the start of the 21st century. The chapters explore the cultural, economic, political and environmental aspects of sustainability, as well as examples of successful research collaboration with northern and indigenous communities. By examining a wide range of issues and places, the contributions highlight the diversity of the Circumpolar North, the challenges and opportunities it faces, and the ways in which people and communities are adapting to and influencing the changing circumstances of this dynamic region. Contributors include both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers from eleven different countries and from across the career spectrum. This book will appeal to an academic audience interested in the manifold facets of sustainability in the Arctic and sub-arctic regions of the world.

Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security

Author: Kamrul Hossain
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004314393
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security: Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples addresses different aspects of human security threats upon the indigenous peoples of the North: the Ainu, Inuit, Nenets, Sámi and the Mongolian indigenous herders.

Oil Spill Response A Global Perspective

Author: Walter F. Davidson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402085656
Format: PDF, Kindle
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International experts in the field of oil spill response, including reprsentatives from 26 NATO countries, participated in a workshop in Canada to discuss their experience in the development and application of current and emerging technologies for oil spill response in the marine environment. These presentations which form the basis of chapters in this book provide a practical viewpoint of methods used to deal with oil spills under the variety of environmental conditions found in the marine environment. In particular, focus is given to the evaluation of oil spill countermeasures for use under arctic conditions in light of anticipated regional increases in marine traffic (e.g. Northwest Passage) and industrial activities (e.g. offshore oil and gas exploration) in the future. This book provides a timely international perspective on applied research and development, technology transfer, and “lessons learned” from field trials and actual case studies associated with recent spill events. Topics include Preparedness/Contingency Planning, (Eco-terrorism); Oil Spill Fate and Transport (Environmental Persistence, Remote Sensing, modelling, Biodegradation), Biological Effects (Environmental Effects Monitoring and Environmental Risk Assessment); and Operational Response (Containment/Recovery Treating Agents, Shoreline Cleanup, In-situ Burning, Emerging Response Strategies). This book provides a synopsis as to the methods currently employed to deals with spills and an insight on future technologies under development.

Climate Change Adaptation Resilience and Hazards

Author: Walter Leal Filho
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319398806
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book analyses the links between climate change adaptation, resilience and the impacts of hazards. The contributors cover topics such as climate change adaptation in coastal zones, the evaluation of community land models, climate change considerations in public health and water resource management, as well as conceptual frameworks for understanding vulnerabilities to extreme climate events. The book focuses on a variety of concrete projects, initiatives and strategies currently being implemented across the world. It also presents case studies, trends, data and projects that illustrate how cities, communities and regions have been striving to achieve resilience and have handled hazards.

Antarctica and the Arctic Circle A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth s Polar Regions 2 volumes

Author: Andrew Jon Hund
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610693930
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This one-stop reference is a perfect resource for anyone interested in the North and South Poles, whether their interest relates to history, wildlife, or the geography of these regions in the news today. • Introduces natural phenomena and flora and fauna found at the North and South Pole regions • Discusses current concerns related to climate change and its impact on the polar regions • Furnishes students with an understanding of territorial claims and political issues surrounding the North and South Poles • Includes cross-references to enable readers to draw connections between topics • Offers further readings at the end of each entry as well as a Guide to Related Topics to stimulate student research

Integration of Information for Environmental Security

Author: H. Gonca Coskun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402065744
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Water management and disasters, including droughts and floods are becoming very important subjects in the international platforms. This book will provide information about high technology techniques to solve important problems using remote sensing and GIS for topics such as the environmental security, water resources management, disaster forecast and prevention and information security.

Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

Author: Paul Arthur Berkman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136217487
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The North Pole is being transformed from a sea-ice cap to a seasonally ice-free sea within the next few decades. This fundamental shift in the boundary conditions of the Arctic Ocean will create a new natural system with different dynamics than anything previously experienced by humans in the region. With the diminishing ice cover, interests are awakening globally to take advantage of extensive energy, shipping, fishing and tourism prospects in the Arctic Ocean. A range of states, including the major Arctic powers, are increasingly asserting their sovereignty seawards. National security policies are being declared and nuclear-capable states are adjusting their strategic deployments in the Arctic Ocean. There are forums for international cooperation in the Arctic, most notably the Arctic Council, but peace in the Arctic Ocean has yet to be explicitly established as a common interest because of the long-standing military presence. Risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities are inherent consequences. This volume proposes environmental security as providing a holistic framework to assess these security risks and then identify the appropriate adaptation and mitigation responses. Only after shared risk assessment and understanding of the appropriate responses, will there be sufficient clarity about the governance paths to pursue within the international legal framework of the law of the sea.