Epidemiological Research Terms and Concepts

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711716
Format: PDF
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The book is organized so as to address in separate sections first the preparatory topics of medicine (clinical and epidemiological), science in general, and statistics (mathematical); then topics of epidemiological research proper; and, finally, topics of ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. In those two main sections, a further grouping is based on the distraction between objects and methods of study. In this framework, the particular topics are addressed both descriptively and quasi-prescriptively, commonly with a number of explicatory annotations. This book is intended to serve as a handbook for whomever is, in whatever way, concerned with epidemiological or ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. But besides this, it is also intended to serve as a textbook for students in introductory courses on ‘epidemiological’ research – to which end there is a suggested hierarchy of the concepts that might reasonably be covered.

Epidemiological Research An Introduction

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745370
Format: PDF
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Having last year published “Up from Clinical Epidemiology & EBM” and also “Epidemiological Research: Terms and Concepts,” Miettinen now – this time with collaboration from his junior colleague I. Karp – brings out this further introduction into epidemiological research; and he is now working on an introduction into clinical research, for publication next year. It evidently is Miettinen’s felt time to crystallize the basic understandings he has come to as the culmination of a half-century of concentrated effort to advance the theory of epidemiological and ‘meta-epidemiological clinical’ research. In accord with its title, this book focuses on research to develop the knowledge-base for preventive medicine, which mainly is knowledge about the causal origin –etilogy, etiogenesis – of illness. It first illustrates how wanting this knowledge still is, despite much research; and it then aims to guide the reader to more productive etiogenetic research. This book places much emphasis on the need to assure relevance by principles-guided objects design for the studies, which now remains conspicuously absent from epidemiologists’ concerns. And as for methods design, this book exposes the fallacies in the still-common ‘cohort’ and ‘case-control’ studies, defines the essentials of all etiogenetic studies, and then addresses the true options for design in this framework of shared essentials. A good deal of attention is also given to the still commonly-held, very major, twin fallacies that screening for an illness is a preventive intervention, to be studied by randomized trials, and that research on it can imply rational guidelines or recommendations regarding decisions about the screening. While Miettinen already is regarded as ‘the father of modern epidemiology,’ he now appears to have become the father also of post-modern epidemiology, where ‘epidemiology’ still means epidemiological research.

Concepts of Epidemiology

Author: Raj S. Bhopal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198739680
Format: PDF, ePub
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Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, by exploring and establishing the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of a disease. Concepts of Epidemiology comprehensively describes the application of core epidemiological concepts and principles toreaders interested in population health research, policy making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care. The book provides an overview of study designs and practical framework for the geographical analysis of diseases, including accounting for error and bias within studies. It discusses the ways in which epidemiological data are presented, explains the distinction between association and causation, aswell as relative and absolute risks, and considers the theoretical and ethical basis of epidemiology both in the past and the future. This new edition places even greater emphasis on interactive learning. Each chapter includes learning objectives, theoretical and numerical exercises, questions and answers, a summary of the key points, and exemplar panels to illustrate the concepts and methods under consideration.Written in an accessible and engaging style, with a specialized glossary to explain and de\'1fne technical terminology, Concepts of Epidemiology is ideal for postgraduate students in epidemiology, public health, and health policy. It is also perfect for clinicians, undergraduate students andresearchers in medicine, nursing and other health disciplines who wish to improve their understanding of fundamental epidemiological concepts.

Up from Clinical Epidemiology EBM

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048195015
Format: PDF, ePub
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‘Clinical epidemiology’ is now widely promoted and taught as a ‘basic science’ of Evidence-Based Medicine, of clinical EBM to be specific. This book, however, is mostly about that which Miettinen takes to be the necessary substitute for this now-so-fashionable subject – namely, Theory of Clinical Medicine together with its subordinate Theory of Clinical Research. The leit motif in all of this is Miettinen’s perception of the need, and opportunity, to bring major improvements into clinical medicine in this Information Age, now that theoretical progress has made feasible the development of practice-guiding Expert Systems for it. Parts of this text constitute essential reading for whoever is expected, or otherwise inclined, to study – or teach – ‘clinical epidemiology,’ and the same is true of those who set policy for the education of future clinicians; but practically all of it is essential reading for future – and current – academics in the various disciplines of clinical medicine. After all, the text is the result of a concentrated effort, over a half-century no less, to really understand both clinical and community medicine and the research to advance the knowledge-base of these. Research epidemiologists, too, will find this text interesting and instructive.

Epidemiological Research Methods

Author: Don McNeil
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471961963
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The concepts of epidemiology, the science that uses statistical methods to investigate associations between risk factors and disease outcomes in human populations, are developed using examples involving real data from published studies. The relevant statistical methods are developed systematically to provide an integrated approach to observational and experimental studies. After covering basic measurement, study design, and study credibility issues, the author continues with basic statistical methods and techniques for adjusting risk estimates for confounders. Statistical models including logistic regression and the proportional hazards model for survival analysis are explained in detail in the following chapters, concluding with an explanation of the general methods for determining the sample size and power requirements for an epidemiological study. Taking advantage of the power, accessibility and user-friendliness of modern computer packages, the author uses a variety of interesting data sets and graphical displays to illustrate the methods. Epidemiological Research Methods will be of interest to students and research workers who need to learn and appreciate modern approaches to the subject. Without unnecessary emphasis on mathematics or theory, the book will enable the reader to gain a greater level of understanding of the underlying methods than is normally provided in books on epidemiology.

Epidemiology Principles and Practical Guidelines

Author: Jan Van den Broeck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400759894
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This textbook presents epidemiology in a practical manner, contextualized with discussions of theory and ethics, so that students and professionals from all academic backgrounds may develop a deep appreciation for how to conduct and interpret epidemiological research. Readers will develop skills to: -Search for and appraise literature critically, -Develop important research questions, -Design and implement studies to address those questions, -Perform and interpret fundamental statistical estimations and tests, -Consider the ethical implications of all stages of research, -Report findings in publications, and -Advocate for change in the public health setting. Epidemiology is and will remain a discipline in motion, and this textbook aims at reflecting this dynamism and keeping pace with its momentum. This textbook is not only a classroom tool with high utility but also an essential reference and guide for those engaging in research involving human subjects.

A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts

Author: Alfredo Morabia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764368180
Format: PDF, Docs
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An authoritative collection of contributions which first appeared in "SPM International Journal of Public Health", 2001. The papers focus on the historical emergence of current epidemiological methods and their relative importance at different points in time: they present the design of prospective and retrospective studies, and the concepts of bias, confounding, and interaction. This compilation of articles is complemented by an introduction and comments by Prof. Alfredo Morabia.

A Dictionary of Epidemiology

Author: Miquel Porta
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199976724
Format: PDF, ePub
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This sixth edition of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the most updated since its inception -- reflects the profound substantive and methodological changes that have come to characterize epidemiology and its associated disciplines. Sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, this book remains the essential reference for anyone studying or working in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, medicine, or the growing number health sciences in which epidemiologic competency is now required. More than just a dictionary, this text is an essential guidebook to the state of the science. It offers the most current, authoritative definitions of terms central to biomedical and public health literature -- everything from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology continues to change and grow, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will remain its book of record.

Principles of Epidemiology

Author: Lewis H. Roht
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483276341
Format: PDF, Docs
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Principles of Epidemiology: A Self-Teaching Guide consists of a series of problem-solving exercises designed to introduce and guide readers toward an understanding of the principles and methods of epidemiology, rather than the epidemiology of specific diseases or subject areas such as ""infectious disease"" or ""chronic disease"" epidemiology. The guide has been formulated to be used by itself or as a supplement to standard textbooks. It illustrates and illuminates the principles and concepts of epidemiology and provides the reader an opportunity to practice the application of these principles in a logical sequence. The guide is divided into 14 exercises. Each exercise will help readers to understand principles or methods used by epidemiologist. Topics covered include the patterns of disease, populations at risk and risk assessment, screening for disease, investigation of an epidemic, etiology of disease, principles of causation, study design in epidemiologic investigation, data interpretation, and the uses and applications of epidemiology.

Quantitative Methods for Health Research

Author: Nigel Bruce
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111869337X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Quantitative Research Methods for Health Professionals: A Practical Interactive Course is a superb introduction to epidemiology, biostatistics, and research methodology for the whole health care community. Drawing examples from a wide range of health research, this practical handbook covers important contemporary health research methods such as survival analysis, Cox regression, and meta-analysis, the understanding of which go beyond introductory concepts. The book includes self-assessment exercises throughout to help students explore and reflect on their understanding and a clear distinction is made between a) knowledge and concepts that all students should ensure they understand and b) those that can be pursued by students who wish to do so. The authors incorporate a program of practical exercises in SPSS using a prepared data set that helps to consolidate the theory and develop skills and confidence in data handling, analysis and interpretation.