Epidemiological Research Terms and Concepts

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711716
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book is organized so as to address in separate sections first the preparatory topics of medicine (clinical and epidemiological), science in general, and statistics (mathematical); then topics of epidemiological research proper; and, finally, topics of ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. In those two main sections, a further grouping is based on the distraction between objects and methods of study. In this framework, the particular topics are addressed both descriptively and quasi-prescriptively, commonly with a number of explicatory annotations. This book is intended to serve as a handbook for whomever is, in whatever way, concerned with epidemiological or ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. But besides this, it is also intended to serve as a textbook for students in introductory courses on ‘epidemiological’ research – to which end there is a suggested hierarchy of the concepts that might reasonably be covered.

Epidemiological Research An Introduction

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745370
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Having last year published “Up from Clinical Epidemiology & EBM” and also “Epidemiological Research: Terms and Concepts,” Miettinen now – this time with collaboration from his junior colleague I. Karp – brings out this further introduction into epidemiological research; and he is now working on an introduction into clinical research, for publication next year. It evidently is Miettinen’s felt time to crystallize the basic understandings he has come to as the culmination of a half-century of concentrated effort to advance the theory of epidemiological and ‘meta-epidemiological clinical’ research. In accord with its title, this book focuses on research to develop the knowledge-base for preventive medicine, which mainly is knowledge about the causal origin –etilogy, etiogenesis – of illness. It first illustrates how wanting this knowledge still is, despite much research; and it then aims to guide the reader to more productive etiogenetic research. This book places much emphasis on the need to assure relevance by principles-guided objects design for the studies, which now remains conspicuously absent from epidemiologists’ concerns. And as for methods design, this book exposes the fallacies in the still-common ‘cohort’ and ‘case-control’ studies, defines the essentials of all etiogenetic studies, and then addresses the true options for design in this framework of shared essentials. A good deal of attention is also given to the still commonly-held, very major, twin fallacies that screening for an illness is a preventive intervention, to be studied by randomized trials, and that research on it can imply rational guidelines or recommendations regarding decisions about the screening. While Miettinen already is regarded as ‘the father of modern epidemiology,’ he now appears to have become the father also of post-modern epidemiology, where ‘epidemiology’ still means epidemiological research.

Epidemiology Principles and Practical Guidelines

Author: Jan Van den Broeck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400759894
Format: PDF, ePub
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This textbook presents epidemiology in a practical manner, contextualized with discussions of theory and ethics, so that students and professionals from all academic backgrounds may develop a deep appreciation for how to conduct and interpret epidemiological research. Readers will develop skills to: -Search for and appraise literature critically, -Develop important research questions, -Design and implement studies to address those questions, -Perform and interpret fundamental statistical estimations and tests, -Consider the ethical implications of all stages of research, -Report findings in publications, and -Advocate for change in the public health setting. Epidemiology is and will remain a discipline in motion, and this textbook aims at reflecting this dynamism and keeping pace with its momentum. This textbook is not only a classroom tool with high utility but also an essential reference and guide for those engaging in research involving human subjects.

Epidemiological Research Methods

Author: Don McNeil
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471961963
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The concepts of epidemiology, the science that uses statistical methods to investigate associations between risk factors and disease outcomes in human populations, are developed using examples involving real data from published studies. The relevant statistical methods are developed systematically to provide an integrated approach to observational and experimental studies. After covering basic measurement, study design, and study credibility issues, the author continues with basic statistical methods and techniques for adjusting risk estimates for confounders. Statistical models including logistic regression and the proportional hazards model for survival analysis are explained in detail in the following chapters, concluding with an explanation of the general methods for determining the sample size and power requirements for an epidemiological study. Taking advantage of the power, accessibility and user-friendliness of modern computer packages, the author uses a variety of interesting data sets and graphical displays to illustrate the methods. Epidemiological Research Methods will be of interest to students and research workers who need to learn and appreciate modern approaches to the subject. Without unnecessary emphasis on mathematics or theory, the book will enable the reader to gain a greater level of understanding of the underlying methods than is normally provided in books on epidemiology.

A Dictionary of Epidemiology

Author: Miquel Porta
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199976724
Format: PDF, Docs
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This sixth edition of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the most updated since its inception -- reflects the profound substantive and methodological changes that have come to characterize epidemiology and its associated disciplines. Sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, this book remains the essential reference for anyone studying or working in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, medicine, or the growing number health sciences in which epidemiologic competency is now required. More than just a dictionary, this text is an essential guidebook to the state of the science. It offers the most current, authoritative definitions of terms central to biomedical and public health literature -- everything from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology continues to change and grow, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will remain its book of record.

Epidemiology of Electromagnetic Fields

Author: Martin Roosli
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466568178
Format: PDF, ePub
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Appeals to a Wide Audience Fueled by more than 30 years of intensive research and debate on the impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on everyday life—starting with residential exposure to magnetic fields and the development of childhood cancer in the 70s and continuing with risk of exposure via wireless communications in present day—Epidemiology of Electromagnetic Fields addresses ongoing public and scientific controversy surrounding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to human health, and provides an in-depth introduction into the methodology of environmental epidemiology that is appropriate for all levels, from student to practicing engineer. Exposure to EMF Focusing primarily on EMF examples, the author presents the general principles and methodological concepts in environmental epidemiology. Topics of importance in the first part of the book include epidemiological study designs, exposure assessment methods and implications for the study results, as well as selection bias, confounding, and other biases including reverse causality and ecological fallacy. The second part of the book covers environmental epidemiological methods in detail and outlines key examples such as childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, as well as examples that look at brain tumors and mobile phone use. The book also offers a detailed discussion on the range of EMF sources and exposures. In addition, it highlights the sophisticated assessment methods required to address exposure situations, and provides a historical perspective. The third part of the book examines how EMF exposure from the use of wireless communication techniques and other challenges affect risk assessment today and also details future developments. Explores environmental epidemiological methods in detail, while critically discussing epidemiological findings Provides a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific evidence of the health effects of EMF Considers how novelty, the steep increase of radiofrequency (RF) EMF exposure from wireless communications, and other challenges affect risk assessment today Epidemiology of Electromagnetic Fields provides a thorough overview of the subject, and evaluates the scientific evidence surrounding the possible health effects of EMFs.

Concepts of Epidemiology

Author: Raj S. Bhopal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060143
Format: PDF
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Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, by exploring and establishing the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of a disease. Concepts of Epidemiology comprehensively describes the application of core epidemiological concepts and principles to readers interested in population health research, policy making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care. The book provides an overview of study designs and practical framework for the epidemiological analyses of diseases, including accounting for error and bias within studies. It discusses the ways in which epidemiological data are presented, explains the distinction between association and causation, as well as relative and absolute risks, and considers the theoretical and ethical basis of epidemiology both in the past and the future. This new edition places even greater emphasis on interactive learning. Each chapter includes learning objectives, theoretical and numerical exercises, questions and answers, a summary of the key points, and exemplar panels to illustrate the concepts and methods under consideration. Written in an accessible and engaging style, with a specialized glossary to explain and define technical terminology, Concepts of Epidemiology is ideal for postgraduate students in epidemiology, public health, and health policy. It is also perfect for clinicians, undergraduate students and researchers in medicine, nursing and other health disciplines who wish to improve their understanding of fundamental epidemiological concepts.

Introduction to Epidemiologic Research Methods in Public Health Practice

Author: Susan Bailey
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 1449627846
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Tailored for multiple purposes including learning about and being equipped to evaluate research studies, conducting thesis/dissertation/capstone projects, and publishing scientific results, Epidemiologic Research Methods in Public Health Practice covers the full breadth of epidemiologic study designs and topics (case, case-control, and cohort studies).

Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research

Author: Bethel Ann Powers
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826117731
Format: PDF, Mobi
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An essential reference, particularly for students who encounter nursing theory and research courses in their educational programs....In her foreword...Afaf Meleis states that it is the answer to a graduate student's prayers. I would certainly agree, and I would add that experienced researchers and theoreticians can use it as a handy reference for day-to-day scholarly activities.-- Nursing Education Perspectives. Updated terminology and the addition of many new terms with examples and references that reflect current nursing practice make this third edition of the Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research a valuable accompaniment to the nursing student's or practitioner nurse's bookshelf. With the inclusion of research, theory, statistical, and epidemiologic definitions, as well as cross-reference notes at the end of each entry, this compilation is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date nursing dictionaries available.;. This alphabetical dictionary of terms used in nursing research and nursing theory offers clear definitions--often in. multiple paragraphs and sometimes ending with an example that further demonstrates the meaning of the term Cross-references. are printed in boldface after the definitions with references that will lead the serious reader to delve more deeply into. contextual use of the terms and concepts.---CHOICE February 2006. What distinguishes this Dictionary from others are its attention to the diversity in inquiry and distinctively nursing. 'takes' on key concepts in theory and research. This Dictionary will be a welcome addition to the libraries of both new and. experienced researchers.. ---- Margarete Sandelowski, Cary C. Boshamer Professor, School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This alphabetical dictionary of terms used in nursing research and nursing theory. offers clear definitions-often in multiple paragraphs and sometimes ending with an. example that further demonstrates the meaning of the term. Cross-references are printed. in boldface after the definitions. Powers (emer., Univ. of Rochester) and Knapp (Univ. of. Rochester/Ohio State Univ.) offer descriptive definitions with references that will lead. the serious reader to delve more deeply into the contextual use of the terms and. concepts. Given the accolades for the second edition(1995), it might be expected that the. definitions would rely on older references. Instead, the majority of the 17 pages of. references supporting the text take readers to publications newer than 1995, with a. significant number being as recent as 2004. The work, therefore, is unlikely to become. outdated for many years to come. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All Libraries. that support nurses' education and research at the lower-level undergraduate level and. above.- K. Bradley. Bellevue Community College ---CHOICE February 2006