Equal Citizenship Civil Rights and the Constitution

Author: Christopher Green
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317539397
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is arguably the most historically important clause of the most significant part of the US Constitution. Designed to be a central guarantor of civil rights and civil liberties following Reconstruction, this clause could have been at the center of most of the country's constitutional controversies, not only during Reconstruction, but in the modern period as well; yet for a variety of historical reasons, including precedent-setting narrow interpretations, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been cast aside by the Supreme Court. This book investigates the Clause in a textualist-originalist manner, an approach increasingly popular among both academics and judges, to examine the meanings actually expressed by the text in its original context. Arguing for a revival of the Privileges or Immunities Clause, author Christopher Green lays the groundwork for assessing the originalist credentials of such areas of law as school segregation, state action, sex discrimination, incorporation of the Bill of Rights against states, the relationship between tradition and policy analysis in assessing fundamental rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment rights of corporations and aliens. Thoroughly argued and historically well-researched, this book demonstrates that the Privileges or Immunities Clause protects liberty and equality, and it will be of interest to legal academics, American legal historians, and anyone interested in American constitutional history.

Constitution making and Human Rights in the Sudans

Author: Lutz Oette
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317227913
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Sudan and South Sudan have suffered from repeated cycles of conflict and authoritarianism resulting in serious human rights and humanitarian law violations. Several efforts, such as the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement and transitional justice initiatives have recognized that the failure to develop a stable political and legal order is at the heart of Sudan’s governance problems. Following South Sudan’s independence in 2011, parallel constitutional review processes are under way that have prompted intense debates about core issues of Sudan’s identity, governance and rule of law, human rights protection and the relationship between religion and the State. This book provides an in-depth study of Sudan’s constitutional history and current debates with a view to identifying critical factors that would enable Sudan and South Sudan to overcome the apparent failure to agree on and implement a stable order conducive to sustainable peace and human rights protection. It examines relevant processes against the broader (constitutional) history of Sudan and identifies the building blocks for constitutional reforms through a detailed analysis of Sudanese law and politics. The book addresses constitutionalism and constitutional rights protection in their political, legal and institutional context in Sudan and South Sudan, and the repercussions of the relationship between state and religion for the right to freedom of religion, minority rights and women’s rights.

Quantifying Software

Author: Capers Jones
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351176358
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Software is one of the most important products in human history and is widely used by all industries and all countries. It is also one of the most expensive and labor-intensive products in human history. Software also has very poor quality that has caused many major disasters and wasted many millions of dollars. Software is also the target of frequent and increasingly serious cyber-attacks. Among the reasons for these software problems is a chronic lack of reliable quantified data. This reference provides quantified data from many countries and many industries based on about 26,000 projects developed using a variety of methodologies and team experience levels. The data has been gathered between 1970 and 2017, so interesting historical trends are available. Since current average software productivity and quality results are suboptimal, this book focuses on "best in class" results and shows not only quantified quality and productivity data from best-in-class organizations, but also the technology stacks used to achieve best-in-class results. The overall goal of this book is to encourage the adoption of best-in-class software metrics and best-in-class technology stacks. It does so by providing current data on average software schedules, effort, costs, and quality for several industries and countries. Because productivity and quality vary by technology and size, the book presents quantitative results for applications between 100 function points and 100,000 function points. It shows quality results using defect potential and DRE metrics because the number one cost driver for software is finding and fixing bugs. The book presents data on cost of quality for software projects and discusses technical debt, but that metric is not standardized. Finally, the book includes some data on three years of software maintenance and enhancements as well as some data on total cost of ownership.

Democracy and the Human Rights Act

Author: Dennis Dixon
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351999966
Format: PDF
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This book discusses the extent to which the UK Human Rights Act successfully balances protection of rights and democracy. It is generally accepted that the Act prevents government from violating fundamental rights, but the extent to which the Act can legitimately be overridden as a result of public opinion and participation is less clear. The work considers the Act’s effect on this popular element of the British Constitution. It uses analytical tools from republican political theory to explore the claim that the Act achieved a reconciliation between the protection of rights and democracy. In particular, it employs republican analysis of domination to consider how the Human Rights Act could operate so that public opinion invigilates legislative responses to judicial decisions. The key question is whether judicial decisions under the Human Rights Act serve to ‘remove, reduce or replace’ opportunities for the electorate to control judicial decision-making, remembering always that the electorate is seldom engaged in politics, but should it choose to, its ability to do so is at the heart of democracy. The study also examines the difficulty of isolating national constitutional forms where bills of rights are internationalised as with the European Convention on Human Rights. The book will be a valuable resource for students and academics researching constitutional legal theory and comparative constitutional law. While the focus is on the UK HRA, broader theoretical issues of constitutional review will have significant international interest and relevance to domestic debates on a British Bill of Rights.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Leviathan

Author: Thomas Hobbes
Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
ISBN: 3787332391
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Vom "Leviathan", einem der bedeutendsten theoretischen Werke über die Ursprünge und Grundlagen der Idee des Staates und der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, liegt nun erstmalig eine deutschsprachige Ausgabe vor, die den Text der englischen Erstausgabe von 1651 vollständig und nach den allgemein anerkannten philologischen Kriterien textgetreu darbietet. Die Ausgabe enthält die umfangreichen Marginalien der Erstausgabe und ist quellenkritisch kommentiert. Mit einer Einführung, Chronologie, Literaturverzeichnis, Register und umfangreiche Anmerkungen.

Exploring Vulnerability

Author: Günter Thomas
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 3647540633
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Vulnerability is an essential but also an intriguing ambiguous part of the human condition. This book con-ceptualizes vulnerability to be a fundamental threat and deficit and at the same time to be a powerful resource for transformation.The exploration is undertaken in multidisciplinary perspectives and approaches the human condition in fruitful conversations with medical, psychological, legal, theological, political and philosophical investiga-tions of vulnerability.The multidisciplinary approach opens the space for a broad variety of deeply interrelated topics. Thus, vulnerability is analyzed with respect to diverse aspects of human and social life, such as violence and power, the body and social institutions. Theologically questions of sin and redemption and eventually the nature of the Divine are taken up. Throughout the book phenomenological descriptions are combined with necessary conceptual clarifications. The contributions seek to illuminate the relation between vulnerability as a fundamental unavoidable condition and contingent actualizations related to specific dangers and risks. The core thesis of the book can be seen within its multi-perspectivity: A sound concept of vulnerability is key to a realistic, that is to say neither negative nor illusionary anthropology, to an honest post-theistic understanding of God and eventually to a deeply humanistic understanding of social life.