Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

Author: J.V. Sengers
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531182
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book has been prepared under the auspices of Commission I.2 on Thermodynamics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The authors of the 18 chapters are all recognized experts in the field. The book gives an up-to-date presentation of equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. All principal approaches for developing equations of state are covered. The theoretical basis and practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strength and weaknesses of each is addressed. Topics addressed include the virial equation of state, cubic equations and generalized van der Waals equations, perturbation theory, integral equations, corresponding stated and mixing rules. Special attention is also devoted to associating fluids, polydisperse fluids, polymer systems, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids and fluids near critical points.

Applied Thermodynamics of Fluids

Author: J. V. Sengers
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847558062
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Published under the asspices of both IUPAC and its affiliated body, the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics (IACT), this book will serve as a guide to scientists or technicians who use equations of state for fluids. Concentrating on the application of theory, the practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strengths and weaknesses of each are addressed. It includes material on the equations of state for chemically reacting and non-equilibrium fluids which have undergone significant developments and brings up to date the equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. Applied Thermodynamics of Fluids addresses the need of practitioners within academia, government and industry by assembling an international team of distinguished experts to provide each chapter. The topics presented in the book are important to the energy business, particularly the hydroncarbon economy and the development of new power sources and are also significant for the application of liquid crystals and ionic liquids to commericial products. This reference will be useful for post graduate researchers in the fields of chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry and physics.

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

Author: Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459431
Format: PDF
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This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities

Advances in Thermodynamics of the van der Waals Fluid

Author: David C Johnston
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627056696
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is a comprehensive exposition of the thermodynamic properties of the van der Waals fluid, which evolved out of a course on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics at Iowa State University in the US. The main goal of the book is to provide a grap

Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

Author: Marc J. Assael
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420086960
Format: PDF, Docs
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Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so “simple” that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today’s major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friendly Question & Answer format. Presented questions become increasingly specific throughout the book, with clear and concise answers, as well as illustrations, diagrams, and tables are incorporated wherever helpful. Thermodynamics is a core discipline associated with the theoretical principles and practical applications underlying almost every area of science, from nanoscale biochemical engineering to astrophysics. Highlighting chemical thermodynamics in particular, this book is written in an easy-to-understand style and provides a wealth of fundamental information, simple illustrations, and extensive references for further research and collection of specific data. Designed for an audience that ranges from undergraduate students to scientists and engineers at the forefront of research, this indispensible guide presents clear explanations for topics with wide applicability. It reflects the fact that, very often, the most common questions are also the most profound.

High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author: R.J. Sadus
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444596666
Format: PDF, ePub
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases

Author: Anthony Goodwin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531441
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This title is a revision of Experimental Thermodynamics Volume II, published in 1975, reflecting the significant technological developments and new methods introduced into the study of measurement of thermodynamic quantities. The editors of this volume were assigned the task of assembling an international team of distinguished experimentalists, to describe the current state of development of the techniques of measurement of the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. The resulting volume admirably fulfils this brief and contains a valuable summary of a large variety of experimental techniques applicable over a wide range of thermodynamic states with an emphasis on the precision and accuracy of the results obtained. Those interested in the art of measurements, and in particular engaged in the measurement of thermodynamic properties, will find this material invaluable for the guidance it provides towards the development of new and more accurate techniques. · Provides detailed descriptions of experimental chemical thermodynamic methods · Strong practical bias and includes both detailed working equations and figures for the experimental methods · Most comprehensive text in this field since the publication of Experimental Thermodynamics II

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author: Ulrich K Deiters
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444563547
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Chemical Thermodynamics

Author: J. Rouquerol
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483284530
Format: PDF, Docs
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Chemical Thermodynamics–4 presents the application of experimental methods of chemical thermodynamics. This book discusses the three properties of biological molecules, namely, colossal dimension, exclusive orderliness, and capability to be in different states or conformations depending on conditions. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the trends in thermochemistry that involve complex reaction systems and product mixtures. This text then discusses the problems relating to the standard state of solids and illustrates the utilization of enthalpy-of-mixing-data. Other chapters consider the available heat capacity results in the liquid–gas. This book discusses as well the high-temperature measurement of thermodynamic data for substances of metallurgical interest. The final chapter deals with the important advances in the experimental methods of heat-capacity measurements, including laser-flash calorimetry and the high-resolution heat-capacity calorimeter. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, physical chemists, thermochemists, thermophysicists, nuclear engineers, and research workers.