Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

Author: J.V. Sengers
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531182
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book has been prepared under the auspices of Commission I.2 on Thermodynamics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The authors of the 18 chapters are all recognized experts in the field. The book gives an up-to-date presentation of equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. All principal approaches for developing equations of state are covered. The theoretical basis and practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strength and weaknesses of each is addressed. Topics addressed include the virial equation of state, cubic equations and generalized van der Waals equations, perturbation theory, integral equations, corresponding stated and mixing rules. Special attention is also devoted to associating fluids, polydisperse fluids, polymer systems, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids and fluids near critical points.

Applied Thermodynamics of Fluids

Author: J. V. Sengers
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847558062
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Published under the asspices of both IUPAC and its affiliated body, the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics (IACT), this book will serve as a guide to scientists or technicians who use equations of state for fluids. Concentrating on the application of theory, the practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strengths and weaknesses of each are addressed. It includes material on the equations of state for chemically reacting and non-equilibrium fluids which have undergone significant developments and brings up to date the equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. Applied Thermodynamics of Fluids addresses the need of practitioners within academia, government and industry by assembling an international team of distinguished experts to provide each chapter. The topics presented in the book are important to the energy business, particularly the hydroncarbon economy and the development of new power sources and are also significant for the application of liquid crystals and ionic liquids to commericial products. This reference will be useful for post graduate researchers in the fields of chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry and physics.

Experimental Thermodynamics

Author: B. Le Neindre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483280268
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publication takes a look at absolute measurement of volume and equation of state of gases at high temperatures and low or moderate temperatures. Discussions focus on volumes of cubes of fused silica, density of water, and methods of measuring pressure. The text also examines the compression of liquids and thermodynamic properties and velocity of sound, including thermodynamics of volume changes, weight methods, and adiabatic compression. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the thermophysical properties of fluids.

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

Author: Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459431
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities

Fluid Fluid Interactions

Author: Axel Liebscher
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1501509403
Format: PDF, Docs
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Volume 65 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry attempts to fill this gap and to explicitly focus on the role that co-existing fluids play in the diverse geologic environments. It brings together the previously somewhat detached literature on fluid–fluid interactions in continental, volcanic, submarine and subduction zone environments. It emphasizes that fluid mixing and unmixing are widespread processes that may occur in all geologic environments of the entire crust and upper mantle. Despite different P-T conditions, the fundamental processes are analogous in the different settings.

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases

Author: Ron D. Weir
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780444519771
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume is another in the series of IUPAC sponsored monographs that summarize the state of knowledge with respect to experimental techniques in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. Following volume VI, Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases, VI, this book contains descriptions of recent developments in the techniques for measurement of thermodynamic quantities for multiple phases of pure fluids as well mixtures over a wide range of conditions. The precision and accuracy of results obtained from each method was regarded as an essential element in each description. Throughout the text, the quantities, units and symbols are those defined by IUPAC for use in the international community. Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases, Volume VII is an invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students. Describes the latest techniques for studying multiple phases of pure component systems, using quantities, units and symbols as defined by IUPAC for use in the international community Illustrates the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension and critical parameters An invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students

High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author: R.J. Sadus
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444596666
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Frontiers in Geofluids

Author: Bruce W. D. Yardley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444394894
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Frontiers in Geofluids is a collection of invited papers chosen to highlight recent developments in our understanding of geological fluids in different parts of the Earth, and published to mark the first ten years of publication of the journal Geofluids. The scope of the volume ranges from the fundamental properties of fluids and the phase relationships of fluids encountered in nature, to case studies of the role of fluids in natural processes. New developments in analytical and theoretical approaches to understanding fluid compositions, fluid properties, and geological fluid dynamics across a wide range of environments are included. A recurrent theme of research published in Geofluids is the way in which similar approaches can be applied to geological fluids in very different settings and this is reflected in the diverse range of applications of fluid studies that are included here. They include deep groundwater flow, hydrocarbons in faulted sedimentary basins, hydrothermal ores, and multiphase flow in mid-ocean ridge systems. Other topics covered are geothermal waters, crustal metamorphism, and fluids in magmatic systems. The book will be of great interest to researchers and students interested in crustal and mantle fluids of all sorts.

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author: Ulrich K Deiters
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444563547
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Thermodynamic Properties of Cryogenic Fluids

Author: Jacob W. Leachman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319578359
Format: PDF, Docs
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This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids.