Ethics in Forensic Science

Author: Peter D. Barnett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420041622
Format: PDF
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With the complexity of the interactions between the methodology of science, the principles of justice, and the realities of the practice of law and criminalistics, ethical issues frequently arise. One of the hallmarks of a profession is a code of ethics to govern the actions of members of the profession with one another, with users of the professional service, and with those who are affected by actions of the practitioner. Ethics in Forensic Science: Professional Standards for the Practice of Criminalistics examines the necessity for a code of ethics for forensic scientists, describes the fundamental features of such an ethical code, illustrates some ethical conflicts that arise in the course of professional practice, and gives examples of resolution of some of these conflicts. This volume also describes the development of alternative ethical codes that have been adopted by forensic science organizations. It explores the strengths and weaknesses of varied codes and provides concrete examples that illustrate alternative courses of action that might be taken and how different codes of ethics may require, permit, or proscribe alternatives under consideration.

Principles and Practice of Criminalistics

Author: Keith Inman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420036939
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Expanding on ideas proposed by leading thinkers throughout the history of forensic science, Principles and Practice of Criminalistics: The Profession of Forensic Science outlines a logical framework for the examination of physical evidence in a criminalistics laboratory. The book reexamines prevailing criminalistics concepts in light of both technical and intellectual advances and provides a way of conceptualizing physical evidence from its origin through its interpretation. Conceptually, the book explains what forensic scientists do and discusses the philosophical and practical considerations that affect the conduct of their work. To be sure, some of the ideas challenge conventional wisdom on the subject, and as such, are bound to provoke discussion among members of the forensic community. Against this background, Principles and Practice of Criminalistics: The Profession of Forensic Science is a tremendously valuable reference for professionals involved in forensic science and other related fields.

Ethics in Forensic Science

Author: J. C. Upshaw Downs
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123850193
Format: PDF, ePub
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The word "ethical" can be defined as proper conduct. A failure of forensic scientists to act ethically can result in serious adverse outcomes. However, while seemingly simple to define, the application of being "ethical" is somewhat more obscure. That is, when is ethical, ethical, and when is it not? Because we have an adversarial legal system, differences of opinion exist in forensic science. However, there are instances when differences are so divergent that an individual's ethics are called into question. In light of not only the O.J. Simpson trial - the first national trial to question the ethical behavior of forensic scientists - and the National Academy of Science critique of forensic science, ethical issues have come to the forefront of concern within the forensic community.

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science Second Edition

Author: Robin T. Bowen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498777163
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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While one would hope that forensic scientists, investigators, and experts are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have morality as varied as the general population. These professionals confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Since the publication of the first edition of Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, the field of forensic science has continued to see its share of controversy. This runs the gamut of news stories from investigators, lab personnel, or even lab directors falsifying results, committing perjury, admitting to fraud, to overturned convictions, questions about bias, ethics, and what constitutes an "expert" on the witness stand. This fully updated edition tackles all these issues—including some specific instances and cases of unethical behavior—and addresses such salient issues as accreditation requirements, standardization of ethical codes, examiner certification, and standards for education and training. The new edition provides: A new chapter on the "Ferguson Effect" faced by the criminal justice system The context of forensic science ethics in relation to general scientific ethics, measurement uncertainty, and ethics in criminal justice Ethical conundrums and real-world examples that forensic scientists confront every day The ethics and conduct codes of 20 different forensic and scientific professional organizations An outline of the National Academies of Science (NAS) recommendations and progress made on ethics in forensic science since the release of the NAS report Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the forensic sciences—highlights the complicated nature of ethics and decision-making at the crime scene, in the lab, and in the courts. The book serves both as an essential resource for laboratories to train their employees and as an invaluable textbook for the growing number of courses on ethics in criminal justice and forensic science curricula. Accompanying PowerPoint® slides and an Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank are available to professors upon qualifying course adoption.

Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing

Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420068238
Format: PDF, ePub
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When a crime or other incident takes place, clothing items are often present or left behind, and can become directly involved in the case itself. Items of clothing are thus one of the most common types of exhibit examined in court. They can provide valuable information in cases of violent crimes, such as homicide or rape, as well as in burglary, robbery, arson, and vehicular accidents. A unique reference in the forensic arena The first of its kind, Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing discusses the forensic examination of clothing in criminal cases. It examines the ramifications of DNA profiling and its effect on the screening approach to clothing examination. Coverage includes protocols and procedures, preliminary assessment, examination, testing and sampling, quality assurance and control, and the significance of results. Applicable to a myriad of readers Suitable for a wide range of readers, this book is designed for examiners trying to decide how to approach a clothing examination, those looking for more information on a specific topic, laboratory quality assurance officers in need of a reliable reference, as well as attorneys, investigators, archaeologists, and curators. Expert authors Author Jane Moira Taupin has testified as a forensic expert more than 130 times. Chesterene Cwiklik is a founder of the Pacific Coast Forensic Science Institute. Their expertise makes this a valuable resource for all those who examine clothing items and interpret subsequent findings.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309142393
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation Second Edition

Author: John J. Lentini
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439875995
Format: PDF, Docs
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Knowledge of the science behind fires is critical to understanding a fire’s cause and successfully presenting that determination to the authorities or in litigation. Now in its second edition, Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation focuses on the practical application of scientific principles to determine the causes of fires. Uniquely qualified with years of experience in on-site investigations, lab analyses, and courtroom presentation, the author provides a resource that is unparalleled in depth and focus. The book explores: The history of fire investigation and the basic chemistry and physics of fire The science of fire dynamics—how things burn and how they interact with their surroundings while doing so Practical procedures for conducting fire scene inspections Laboratory examination of fire debris to test for the presence of ignitable liquid residues and for potential ignition sources Relevant scientific principles as applied to 30 actual fires The evolution of the mythology of arson investigation The common root causes of errors in fire investigation The final chapter discusses the professional practice of fire investigation. It examines quality assurance, business practices, and the fundamentals of being an expert witness, with advice for giving testimony in depositions and at trial. Other highlights of the second edition include new and expanded discussions on novel training methods, first assumptions, computer fire modeling, low voltage ignition sources, the questionable validity of some origin determinations, and recent changes in NFPA 921. Thorough and accessible, this volume not only provides the practical information necessary to conduct an effective inquiry but also offers insight into the science, history, and theory behind what makes fire investigation a multi-faceted profession. John Lentini discusses the book in a video on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.

Pioneers in Forensic Science

Author: Kelly M. Pyrek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498785301
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book highlights the contributions of leading forensic science practitioners, iconic figures who have been integral in both establishing current scientific and medicolegal practices and innovative evidence collection, testing, and analysis methods. Such professionals include Henry Lee, Michael Baden, William Bass, Jay Siegel, John Butler, Cyril Wecht, Vincent Di Maio, Marcella Fierro, Barry Fisher, and more. Previously unpublished interviews with these pioneers in the field, expressly undertaken for the purposes this book, examine the last 30 years—past trends that have shaped the field—as well as current and emerging trends that have, and will shape, the future of forensic science.

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123821665
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association