Evolution after Gene Duplication

Author: Katharina Dittmar
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
ISBN: 9780470619896
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Gene duplication has long been believed to have played a major role in the rise of biological novelty through evolution of new function and gene expression patterns. The first book to examine gene duplication across all levels of biological organization, Evolution after Gene Duplication presents a comprehensive picture of the mechanistic process by which gene duplication may have played a role in generating biodiversity. Key Features: Explores comparative genomics, genome evolution studies and analysis of multi-gene families such as Hox, globins, olfactory receptors and MHC (immune system) A complete post-genome treatment of the topic originally covered by Ohno's 1970 classic, this volume extends coverage to include the fate of associated regulatory pathways Taps the significant increase in multi-gene family data that has resulted from comparative genomics Comprehensive coverage that includes opposing theoretical viewpoints, comparative genomics data, theoretical and empirical evidence and the role of bioinformatics in the study of gene duplication This up-to-date overview of theory and mathematical models along with practical examples is suitable for scientists across various levels of biology as well as instructors and graduate students.

Genome Evolution

Author: Axel Meyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401002630
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the years since the publication of Susumu Ohno's 1970 landmark book Evolution by gene duplication tremendous advances have been made in molecular biology and especially in genomics. Studies of genome structure and function prerequisite to testing hypotheses of genome evolution were all but impossible until recent methodological advances. This book evaluates newly generated empirical evidence as it pertains to theories of genomic evolutionary patterns and processes. Tests of hypotheses using analyses of complete genomes, interpreted in a phylogenetic context, provide evidence regarding the relative importance of gene duplication. The alternative explanation is that the evolution of regulatory elements that control the expression of and interactions among genes has been a more important force in shaping evolutionary innovation. This collection of papers will be of interest to all academic and industry researchers working in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics and genome centers.

Evolution by Gene Duplication

Author: Susumu Ohno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364286659X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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It is said that "necessity is the mother of invention". To be sure, wheels and pulleys were invented out of necessity by the tenacious minds of upright citi zens. Looking at the history of mankind, however, one has to add that "Ieisure is the mother of cultural improvement". Man's creative genius flourished only when his mind, freed from the worry of daily toils, was permitted to entertain apparently useless thoughts. In the same manner, one might say with regard to evolution that "natural selection mere(y tnodifted, while redundanry created". Natural selection has been extremely effective in policing alleHe mutations which arise in already existing gene loci. Because of natural selection, organisms have been able to adapt to changing environments, and by adaptive radiation many new species were created from a common ancestral form. Y et, being an effective policeman, natural selection is extremely conservative by nature. Had evolution been entirely dependent upon natural selection, from a bacterium only numerous forms of bacteria would have emerged. The creation of metazoans, vertebrates and finally mammals from unicellular organisms would have been quite impos sible, for such big leaps in evolution required the creation of new gene loci with previously nonexistent functions. Only the cistron which became redun dant was able to escape from the relentless pressure of natural selection, and by escaping, it accumulated formerly forbidden mutations to emerge as a new gene locus.

Das egoistische Gen

Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642553915
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

Adaptive Evolution of Genes and Genomes

Author: Austin L. Hughes
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195116267
Format: PDF, ePub
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This valuable book thoroughly examines adaptive evolution at the DNA level while taking a comprehensive look at the research being done in the area. It presents useful cases where signals of adaptive evolution are detected through neutral molecular evolution, providing a powerful strategy for testing the Darwinian hypothesis of natural selection. By bridging the gap between research on molecular and phenotype evolution and contributing to the unification of the biological sciences, this book will especially appeal to researchers and graduate students in the field of evolutionary biology. Also, with its focus on particular protein molecules and on specific domains of these proteins, it will benefit a wider audience of both evolutionary and functional biologists.

Evolutionary Genetics

Author: Charles W. Fox
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199775040
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Charles Fox and Jason Wolf have brought together leading researchers to produce a cutting-edge primer introducing readers to the major concepts in modern evolutionary genetics. This book spans the continuum of scale, from studies of DNA sequence evolution through proteins and development to multivariate phenotypic evolution, and the continuum of time, from ancient events that lead to current species diversity to the rapid evolution seen over relatively short time scales in experimental evolution studies. Chapters are accessible to an audience lacking extensive background in evolutionaryy genetics but also current and in-depth enough to be of value to established researchers in evolution biology.

Genomic studies on gene duplication

Author: Xionglei He
Publisher:
ISBN:
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Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the main model organism, I addressed three fundamental questions on gene duplication. I first investigated the functional divergence after gene duplication, revealing a general pattern of rapid subfunctionalization accompanied by prolonged and substantial neofunctionalization in the evolution of duplicate genes, which leads to a new model termed sub-neo-functionalization. I then examined the factors that could affect gene duplicability. Consistent with the sub-neo-functionalization model, I showed that complex genes are preferentially duplicated in yeast genomes, and that duplicate genes have longer protein sequences, more functional domains, and more cis-regulatory motifs than singleton genes. Thus, gene duplication increases both gene number and average gene complexity, two important factors in the origin of genomic and organismal complexity. In the last part of the thesis I evaluated the hypothesis of functional compensation between duplicate genes, which is the prevailing explanation for the phenotypic discrepancy between deleting a singleton gene and deleting a duplicate gene. After thoroughly analyzing all available functional data, I failed to find unequivocal evidence for the compensation hypothesis. Instead, old duplicates were found to have similar levels of phenotypic effects as singletons. The smaller phenotypic effect of deleting a young duplicate than deleting a singleton is primarily due to preferential duplication of less important genes and "dilution of essentiality" after duplication by subfunctionalization. My work highlights the strength of comparative functional genomics in evolutionary studies, and provides new views on the evolution of duplicate genes.

Issues in Life Sciences Molecular Biology 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963495
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Issues in Life Sciences: Molecular Biology / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Molecular Biology. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Molecular Biology: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Molecular Biology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Molecular Biology: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Issues in Biological Biochemical and Evolutionary Sciences Research 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963703
Format: PDF, Docs
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Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research. The editors have built Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.