Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea

Author: Paul Falkowski
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080550510
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea reference examines how photosynthesis evolved on Earth and how phytoplankton evolved through time – ultimately to permit the evolution of complex life, including human beings. The first of its kind, this book provides thorough coverage of key topics, with contributions by leading experts in biophysics, evolutionary biology, micropaleontology, marine ecology, and biogeochemistry. This exciting new book is of interest not only to students and researchers in marine science, but also to evolutionary biologists and ecologists interested in understanding the origins and diversification of life. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea offers these students and researchers an understanding of the molecular evolution, phylogeny, fossil record, and environmental processes that collectively permits us to comprehend the rise of phytoplankton and their impact on Earth's ecology and biogeochemistry. It is certain to become the first and best word on this exhilarating topic. Discusses the evolution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans as the first living organisms and the first and basic producers in the earths food chain Includes the latest developments in the evolution and ecology of marine phytoplankton specifically with additional information on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles The only book to consider of the evolution of phytoplankton and its role in molecular evolution, biogeochemistry, paleontology, and oceanographic aspects Written at a level suitable for related reading use in courses on the Evolution of the Biosphere, Ecological and Biological oceanography and marine biology, and Biodiversity

Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea

Author: Paul G. Falkowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489907629
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Biological processes in the oceans play a crucial role in regulating the fluxes of many important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, and silicon. As we come to the end of the 20th century, oceanographers have increasingly focussed on how these elements are cycled within the ocean, the interdependencies of these cycles, and the effect of the cycle on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and climate. Many techniques and tools have been developed or adapted over the past decade to help in this effort. These include satellite sensors of upper ocean phytoplankton distributions, flow cytometry, molecular biological probes, sophisticated moored and shipboard instrumentation, and vastly increased numerical modeling capabilities. This volume is the result of the 37th Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, in which a wide spectrum of oceanographers, chemists, biologists, and modelers discussed the progress in understanding the role of primary producers in biogeochemical cycles. The symposium is dedicated to Dr. Richard W. Eppley, an intellectual giant in biological oceanography, who inspired a generation of scientists to delve into problems of understanding biogeochemical cycles in the sea. We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Special thanks to Claire Lamberti for her help in producing this volume.

The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems

Author: J. Philip Grime
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118223276
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

Author: Douglas G. Capone
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123725224
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Since the first edition of Nitrogen in the Marine Environment was published in 1983, it has been recognized as the standard in the field. In the time since the book first appeared, there has been tremendous growth in the field with unprecedented discoveries over the past decade that have fundamentally changed the view of the marine nitrogen cycle. As a result, this Second Edition contains twice the amount of information that the first edition contained. This updated edition is now available online, offering searchability and instant, multi-user access to this important information. *The classic text, fully updated to reflect the rapid pace of discovery *Provides researchers and students in oceanography, chemistry, and marine ecology an understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle *Available online with easy access and search - the information you need, when you need it

The Biology of the Deep Ocean

Author: Peter Herring
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191588419
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
The deep ocean environment is the most extensive on our planet. Its denizens are normally unseen but whenever they are exposed to view they are regarded as bizarre aliens from a different world. The Biology of the Deep Ocean takes a close look at this apparently hostile world and explains how its inhabitants are exquisitely adapted to survive and flourish within it. The book begins with an analysis of how conditions in the oceanic environment differ from those in the familiar terrestrial world and then describes the techniques (and ingenuity) required to reveal the populations inhabiting the colossal volume of the deep oceans. A section on primary production emphasizes how almost all deep-sea life depends ultimately on the phytoplankton at the surface and the export flux to deeper water. The ultimate beneficiaries of this export, the populations on the deep-sea floor, are then discussed, together with the unique features of life fuelled by chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of deep-sea animals, and their changes in time and space, are controlled by physical, biological and historical factors. The rapid reduction of biomass with depth puts a high priority on efficient prey capture and energy conservation. Chapters on energy efficiency, mechanoreception, chemoreception and vision reveal the extraordinary adaptations necessary for success. Accounts of the effector systems involved in colour, camouflage and bioluminescence heighten the concept of a different world. A chapter on animal life styles emphasizes the links between size, sex, and seasonality, visible in the contrasting benefits of gigantism, dwarf males and the ability to respond to a periodic influx of food from the surface. The final chapter and appendix deal with the unique and exciting variety of life in the deep ocean, formalized as biodiversity. Its different expression on the sea floor and in midwater invites both comparisons with the rain forest and concerns about its fragility, taking the reader back to the emphasis in the first chapter on how little we still know about this critical habitat. The Biology of the Deep Ocean complements the two companion volumes on the biology of littoral and estuarine habitats and is designed to be accessible to all marine scientists, student and professional.

The Ocean Basins Their Structure and Evolution

Author: Open University
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080537936
Format: PDF
Download Now
This is an invaluable textbook, prepared by the Open University team and designed so that it can be read on its own or as part of the OU course. This second edition has been fully revised and updated including new colour illustrations increasing the striking spread of full colour diagrams throughout the book. The clarity of the text has been improved, providing comprehensive coverage of the evolution of ocean basins and their structure in a clear, concise manner aimed specifically at the student market. In this second edition the technological advances in fields as diverse as: - deep-towed instruments for `sniffing' hydrothermal plumes - mapping the sea-floor by sophisticated sonar techniques - three-dimensional imaging of crustal structure by seismic tomography - the use of satellites for navigation, and for making precise measurements of the height of the sea-surface The first chapters describe the processes that shape the ocean basins, determine the structure and composition of oceanic crust and control the major features of continental margins. How the 'hot springs' of the oceanic ridges cycle chemical elements between seawater and oceanic crust is then explored. Sediment distributions are examined next, to demonstrate how sediments can preserve a record of past climatic and sea-level changes. Finally, the role of the oceans as an integral part of global chemical changes is reviewed. High quality full colour diagrams Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book

Elements of Physical Oceanography

Author: John H. Steele
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012375724X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Elements of Physical Oceanography is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current physical oceanography knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. Its selection of articles—all written by experts in their field—focuses on ocean physics, air-sea transfers, waves, mixing, ice, and the processes of transfer of properties such as heat, salinity, momentum and dissolved gases, within and into the ocean. Elements of Physical Oceanography serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles in physical oceanography to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference

Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

Author: Carmelo R. Tomas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080534428
Format: PDF
Download Now
Identifying Marine Phytoplankton is an accurate and authoritative guide to the identification of marine diatoms and dinoflagellates, meant to be used with tools as simple as a light microscope. The book compiles the latest taxonomic names, an extensive bibliography (referencing historical as well as up-to-date literature), synthesis and criteria in one indispensable source. Techniques for preparing samples and containing are included as well as hundreds of detailed, helpful information. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton is a combined paperback edition made available by popular demand of two influential books published earlier--Marine Phytoplankton and Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. Contains hundreds of illustrations showing critical characteristics necessary for proper identification, plus keys and other guides Provides up-to-date taxonomic revisions Includes species from around the world Updates synthesis of modern and historical literature presented by active researchers in the field Compiles literature from around the world into one handy source