Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea

Author: Paul Falkowski
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080550510
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea reference examines how photosynthesis evolved on Earth and how phytoplankton evolved through time – ultimately to permit the evolution of complex life, including human beings. The first of its kind, this book provides thorough coverage of key topics, with contributions by leading experts in biophysics, evolutionary biology, micropaleontology, marine ecology, and biogeochemistry. This exciting new book is of interest not only to students and researchers in marine science, but also to evolutionary biologists and ecologists interested in understanding the origins and diversification of life. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea offers these students and researchers an understanding of the molecular evolution, phylogeny, fossil record, and environmental processes that collectively permits us to comprehend the rise of phytoplankton and their impact on Earth's ecology and biogeochemistry. It is certain to become the first and best word on this exhilarating topic. Discusses the evolution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans as the first living organisms and the first and basic producers in the earths food chain Includes the latest developments in the evolution and ecology of marine phytoplankton specifically with additional information on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles The only book to consider of the evolution of phytoplankton and its role in molecular evolution, biogeochemistry, paleontology, and oceanographic aspects Written at a level suitable for related reading use in courses on the Evolution of the Biosphere, Ecological and Biological oceanography and marine biology, and Biodiversity

The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Author: Brett Calcott
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262294539
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In 1995, John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry published their influential book The Major Transitions in Evolution. The "transitions" that Maynard Smith and Szathmáry chose to describe all constituted major changes in the kinds of organisms that existed but, most important, these events also transformed the evolutionary process itself. The evolution of new levels of biological organization, such as chromosomes, cells, multicelled organisms, and complex social groups radically changed the kinds of individuals natural selection could act upon. Many of these events also produced revolutionary changes in the process of inheritance, by expanding the range and fidelity of transmission, establishing new inheritance channels, and developing more open-ended sources of variation. Maynard Smith and Szathmáry had planned a major revision of their work, but the death of Maynard Smith in 2004 prevented this. In this volume, prominent scholars (including Szathmáry himself) reconsider and extend the earlier book's themes in light of recent developments in evolutionary biology. The contributors discuss different frameworks for understanding macroevolution, prokaryote evolution (the study of which has been aided by developments in molecular biology), and the complex evolution of multicellularity.

The Biology of the Deep Ocean

Author: Peter Herring
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191588419
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The deep ocean environment is the most extensive on our planet. Its denizens are normally unseen but whenever they are exposed to view they are regarded as bizarre aliens from a different world. The Biology of the Deep Ocean takes a close look at this apparently hostile world and explains how its inhabitants are exquisitely adapted to survive and flourish within it. The book begins with an analysis of how conditions in the oceanic environment differ from those in the familiar terrestrial world and then describes the techniques (and ingenuity) required to reveal the populations inhabiting the colossal volume of the deep oceans. A section on primary production emphasizes how almost all deep-sea life depends ultimately on the phytoplankton at the surface and the export flux to deeper water. The ultimate beneficiaries of this export, the populations on the deep-sea floor, are then discussed, together with the unique features of life fuelled by chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of deep-sea animals, and their changes in time and space, are controlled by physical, biological and historical factors. The rapid reduction of biomass with depth puts a high priority on efficient prey capture and energy conservation. Chapters on energy efficiency, mechanoreception, chemoreception and vision reveal the extraordinary adaptations necessary for success. Accounts of the effector systems involved in colour, camouflage and bioluminescence heighten the concept of a different world. A chapter on animal life styles emphasizes the links between size, sex, and seasonality, visible in the contrasting benefits of gigantism, dwarf males and the ability to respond to a periodic influx of food from the surface. The final chapter and appendix deal with the unique and exciting variety of life in the deep ocean, formalized as biodiversity. Its different expression on the sea floor and in midwater invites both comparisons with the rain forest and concerns about its fragility, taking the reader back to the emphasis in the first chapter on how little we still know about this critical habitat. The Biology of the Deep Ocean complements the two companion volumes on the biology of littoral and estuarine habitats and is designed to be accessible to all marine scientists, student and professional.

Return to the Sea

Author: Prof. Annalisa Berta
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520951441
Format: PDF, Docs
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Return to the Sea portrays the life and evolutionary times of marine mammals—from giant whales and sea cows that originated 55 million years ago to the deep diving elephant seals and clam-eating walruses of modern times. This fascinating account of the origin of various marine mammal lineages, some extinct, others extant but threatened, is for the non-specialist. Set against a backdrop of geologic time, changing climates, and changing geography, evolution is the unifying principle that helps us to understand the present day diversity of marine mammals and their responses to environmental challenges. Annalisa Berta explains current controversies and explores patterns of change taking place today, such as shifting food webs and predator-prey relationships, habitat degradation, global warming, and the effects of humans on marine mammal communities.

The Ocean Basins Their Structure and Evolution

Author: Open University
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080537936
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is an invaluable textbook, prepared by the Open University team and designed so that it can be read on its own or as part of the OU course. This second edition has been fully revised and updated including new colour illustrations increasing the striking spread of full colour diagrams throughout the book. The clarity of the text has been improved, providing comprehensive coverage of the evolution of ocean basins and their structure in a clear, concise manner aimed specifically at the student market. In this second edition the technological advances in fields as diverse as: - deep-towed instruments for `sniffing' hydrothermal plumes - mapping the sea-floor by sophisticated sonar techniques - three-dimensional imaging of crustal structure by seismic tomography - the use of satellites for navigation, and for making precise measurements of the height of the sea-surface The first chapters describe the processes that shape the ocean basins, determine the structure and composition of oceanic crust and control the major features of continental margins. How the 'hot springs' of the oceanic ridges cycle chemical elements between seawater and oceanic crust is then explored. Sediment distributions are examined next, to demonstrate how sediments can preserve a record of past climatic and sea-level changes. Finally, the role of the oceans as an integral part of global chemical changes is reviewed. High quality full colour diagrams Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book

Smithsonian Ocean

Author: Deborah Cramer
Publisher: Smithsonian
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The author of Great Waters: An Atlantic Passage identifies a living partnership between the earth and its life, explaining the comparatively new responsibility of human beings in protecting the sea in order to safeguard climate and environmental interests. 30,000 first printing.

Air Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles

Author: P.S. Liss
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027716101
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Durham, New Hampshire, U.S.A., July 19-30, 1982