Evolution of the Primate Brain

Author: Michel A. Hofman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538607
Format: PDF
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This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language

Author: Maksim Stamenov
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027251664
Format: PDF, ePub
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The emergence of language, social intelligence, and tool development are what made homo sapiens sapiens differentiate itself from all other biological species in the world. The use of language and the management of social and instrumental skills imply an awareness of intention and the consideration that one faces another individual with an attitude analogical to that of one's own. The metaphor of 'mirror' aptly comes to mind.Recent investigations have shown that the human ability to 'mirror' other's actions originates in the brain at a much deeper level than phenomenal awareness. A new class of neurons has been discovered in the premotor area of the monkey brain: 'mirror neurons'. Quite remarkably, they are tuned to fire to the enaction as well as observation of specific classes of behavior: fine manual actions and actions performed by mouth. They become activated independent of the agent, be it the self or a third person whose action is observed. The activation in mirror neurons is automatic and binds the observation and enaction of some behavior by the self or by the observed other. The peculiar first-to-third-person 'intersubjectivity' of the performance of mirror neurons and their surprising complementarity to the functioning of strategic communicative face-to-face (first-to-second person) interaction may shed new light on the functional architecture of conscious vs. unconscious mental processes and the relationship between behavioral and communicative action in monkeys, primates, and humans. The present volume discusses the nature of mirror neurons as presented by the research team of Prof. Giacomo Rizzolatti (University of Parma), who originally discovered them, and the implications to our understanding of the evolution of brain, mind and communicative interaction in non-human primates and man.(Series B)

Handbook of Intelligence

Author: Sam Goldstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493915622
Format: PDF, ePub
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Numerous functions, cognitive skills, and behaviors are associated with intelligence, yet decades of research has yielded little consensus on its definition. Emerging from often conflicting studies is the provocative idea that intelligence evolved as an adaptation humans needed to keep up with – and survive in – challenging new environments. The Handbook of Intelligence addresses a broad range of issues relating to our cognitive and linguistic past. It is the first full-length volume to place intelligence in an evolutionary/cultural framework, tracing the development of the human mind, exploring differences between humans and other primates, and addressing human thinking and reasoning about its own intelligence and its uses. The works of pioneering thinkers – from Plato to Darwin, Binet to Piaget, Luria to Weachsler – are referenced to illustrate major events in the evolution of theories of intelligence, leading to the current era of multiple intelligences and special education programs. In addition, it examines evolutionary concepts in areas as diverse as creativity, culture, neurocognition, emotional intelligence, and assessment. Featured topics include: The evolution of the human brain from matter to mind Social competition and the evolution of fluid intelligence Multiple intelligences in the new age of thinking Intelligence as a malleable construct From traditional IQ to second-generation intelligence tests The evolution of intelligence, including implications for educational programming and policy. The Handbook of Intelligence is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, clinicians, and professionals in developmental psychology; assessment, testing and evaluation; language philosophy; personality and social psychology; sociology; and developmental biology.

How Can Development and Plasticity Contribute to Understanding Evolution of the Human Brain

Author: Roberto Lent
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889198898
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Humans usually attribute themselves the prerogative of being the pinnacle of evolution. They have large brains with many billion neurons and glial cells, trillions of synapses and besides all, a plastic hardware that may change either subtly or strongly in response to the external environment and internal, mental commands. With this hypercomplex apparatus, they are capable of very sophisticated inward computations and outward behaviors that include self-recognition, metacognition, different forms of language expression and reception, prediction of future events, planning and performing long streams of motor acts, subtle emotional feelings, and many other surprising, almost unbelievable properties. The main challenge for research is: how do we explain this gigantic achievement of evolution? Is it a direct consequence of having acquired a brain larger than our primate ancestors, with huge numbers of computational units? Would it be determined by a particular way these units came to relate to each other, building up logic circuits of powerful capacities? What along development has “made the difference” for the construction of such a complex brain machine? How much of this complexity is innate, how much is sculpted by influence of the external world, by social interaction with our human fellows, and by the history of our own mental trajectory along life? Many specific questions can be asked (albeit not necessarily answered so far) to this purpose: (1) which genomic characteristics make us unique among primates? (2) which of developmental events during and beyond embryogenesis define our brain – prolonged neurogenesis? permanent circuit (re)formation? dynamic synaptogenesis? regressive sculpting of the hardware? all of them? (3) is there anything special about plasticity of the human brain that allows us to build the exquisite individual variability characteristic of our brains? Neuroscience is in need of a synthesis. Perhaps associating concepts derived from developmental neurobiology with evolutionary morphology and physiology, together with those that photograph the human brain in action under influence of the external world, would turn on a light at the end of the tunnel, and we would be able to understand what humans do have that is special – if anything – to explain our success in the Earth.

Brain Mapping

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123973163
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Brain Mapping: A Comprehensive Reference offers foundational information for students and researchers across neuroscience. With over 300 articles and a media rich environment, this resource provides exhaustive coverage of the methods and systems involved in brain mapping, fully links the data to disease (presenting side by side maps of healthy and diseased brains for direct comparisons), and offers data sets and fully annotated color images. Each entry is built on a layered approach of the content – basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for experienced readers. Edited and authored by the leading experts in the field, this work offers the most reputable, easily searchable content with cross referencing across articles, a one-stop reference for students, researchers and teaching faculty. Broad overview of neuroimaging concepts with applications across the neurosciences and biomedical research Fully annotated color images and videos for best comprehension of concepts Layered content for readers of different levels of expertise Easily searchable entries for quick access of reputable information Live reference links to ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed

Brain Research in Addiction

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128135026
Format: PDF, ePub
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Brain Research in Addiction, Volume 235, the latest volume in this groundbreaking series on addiction, presents the neurobiological, pathological, cognitive and evolutionary aspects of addiction, with new chapters covering the Neurobiology of drug intake escalation, the Role of the orexinergic system in reward, Mental time travel and addictive behaviors, An evolutionary perspective on addiction- Addiction is the price we pay for innovation and adaptability, and how Cocaine exposure affects object-place recognition memory in non-human primates. Chapters in this serial are presented by leading researchers from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, who present addiction research from the bottom up, including how addiction evolved, basic research on animal models, and the psychiatric, psychological and cognitive characteristics of addictive behaviors in humans. Presents chapters written by global leaders in research on brain research and its relation to addiction Provides an interdisciplinary approach that will be of interest to many professionals Includes sections on the evolution of addiction, the effects of substance use on primate cognition, and addictive behaviors in humans

Evolving Brains

Author: John Allman
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 9780716760382
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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How did the human brain with all its manifold capacities evolve from basic functions in simple organisms that lived nearly a billion years ago? John Allman addresses this question in Evolving Brains, a provocative study of brain evolution that introduces readers to some of the most exciting developments in science in recent years.

The Limbic System

Author: Robert Isaacson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475767552
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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107 with treatments that affect the arousal of the animals is also implied on the basis of the behavioral changes induced in the lesioned animals by amphetamine administration and by changes in the motivational circumstances under which the animals are tested. Studies of the effects of cingulate lesions in the rat have involved the production of midline cortical damage. Unfortunately, as reported in the previous chapter, the midline cortex of the rat is not comparable to the midline cortex of other animals as defined on the basis of the fibers it receives from the thalamus. In addition, lesions of the midline cortex, whether in the rat or in other species, are likely to interfere with fibers of the neural systems in or near it. These include the cingulum bundle and the supracallosal fibers of the fornix. Norepi nephrine-containing fibers also pass through this region in or near the cingulum bundle. These fibers ascend through the anterior dor solateral septal area and turn up and back to pass through the midline regions and innervate the entire medial cortex (Morrison, Molliver, & Grzanna, 1979). Lesions in this area reduce the norepinephrine distribution throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the medial cortex. A similar problem results from destruction to the anterior cortical regions. Lesions in that region could reduce the norepinephrine sup plies of the entire dorsolateral cortex.

Evolution of The Brain and Intelligence

Author: Harry Jerison
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323141080
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence covers the general principles of behavior and brain function. The book is divided into four parts encompassing 17 chapters that emphasize the implications of the history of the brain for the evolution of behavior in vertebrates. The introductory chapter covers the studies of animal behavior and their implications about the nature of the animal’s world. The following chapters emphasize methodological issues and the meanings of brain indices and brain size, as well as the general anatomy of the brain. Other chapters discuss the history of the brain in the major vertebrate groups that were known about 300 million years ago to determine the fate of these early vertebrate groups. Discussions on broad trends in evolution and their implications for the evolution of intelligence are also included. Substantive matter on the brains, bodies, and associated mechanisms of behavior of vertebrates are covered in the remaining chapters of the book, with an emphasis on evolution “above the species level . This book is of value to anthropologists, behavioral scientists, zoologists, paleontologists, and neurosciences students.

Advances in Central Nervous System Research and Treatment 2011 Edition

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Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464921296
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Advances in Central Nervous System Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Central Nervous System. The editors have built Advances in Central Nervous System Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Central Nervous System in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Central Nervous System Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.