Evolution of the Primate Brain

Author: Michel A. Hofman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538607
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Handbook of Intelligence

Author: Sam Goldstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493915622
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Numerous functions, cognitive skills, and behaviors are associated with intelligence, yet decades of research has yielded little consensus on its definition. Emerging from often conflicting studies is the provocative idea that intelligence evolved as an adaptation humans needed to keep up with – and survive in – challenging new environments. The Handbook of Intelligence addresses a broad range of issues relating to our cognitive and linguistic past. It is the first full-length volume to place intelligence in an evolutionary/cultural framework, tracing the development of the human mind, exploring differences between humans and other primates, and addressing human thinking and reasoning about its own intelligence and its uses. The works of pioneering thinkers – from Plato to Darwin, Binet to Piaget, Luria to Weachsler – are referenced to illustrate major events in the evolution of theories of intelligence, leading to the current era of multiple intelligences and special education programs. In addition, it examines evolutionary concepts in areas as diverse as creativity, culture, neurocognition, emotional intelligence, and assessment. Featured topics include: The evolution of the human brain from matter to mind Social competition and the evolution of fluid intelligence Multiple intelligences in the new age of thinking Intelligence as a malleable construct From traditional IQ to second-generation intelligence tests The evolution of intelligence, including implications for educational programming and policy. The Handbook of Intelligence is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, clinicians, and professionals in developmental psychology; assessment, testing and evaluation; language philosophy; personality and social psychology; sociology; and developmental biology.

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function CNS Disorders and Therapeutics

Author: Carl Faingold
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124158641
Format: PDF, ePub
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Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics, edited by two leaders in the field, offers a current and complete review of what we know about neural networks. How the brain accomplishes many of its more complex tasks can only be understood via study of neuronal network control and network interactions. Large networks can undergo major functional changes, resulting in substantially different brain function and affecting everything from learning to the potential for epilepsy. With chapters authored by experts in each topic, this book advances the understanding of: How the brain carries out important tasks via networks How these networks interact in normal brain function Major mechanisms that control network function The interaction of the normal networks to produce more complex behaviors How brain disorders can result from abnormal interactions How therapy of disorders can be advanced through this network approach This book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in networks, as well as clinicians in neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychiatry dealing with neurobiological disorders. Utilizes perspectives and tools from various neuroscience subdisciplines (cellular, systems, physiologic), making the volume broadly relevant Chapters explore normal network function and control mechanisms, with an eye to improving therapies for brain disorders Reflects predominant disciplinary shift from an anatomical to a functional perspective of the brain Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language

Author: Maksim Stamenov
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027251664
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The emergence of language, social intelligence, and tool development are what made homo sapiens sapiens differentiate itself from all other biological species in the world. The use of language and the management of social and instrumental skills imply an awareness of intention and the consideration that one faces another individual with an attitude analogical to that of one's own. The metaphor of 'mirror' aptly comes to mind.Recent investigations have shown that the human ability to 'mirror' other's actions originates in the brain at a much deeper level than phenomenal awareness. A new class of neurons has been discovered in the premotor area of the monkey brain: 'mirror neurons'. Quite remarkably, they are tuned to fire to the enaction as well as observation of specific classes of behavior: fine manual actions and actions performed by mouth. They become activated independent of the agent, be it the self or a third person whose action is observed. The activation in mirror neurons is automatic and binds the observation and enaction of some behavior by the self or by the observed other. The peculiar first-to-third-person 'intersubjectivity' of the performance of mirror neurons and their surprising complementarity to the functioning of strategic communicative face-to-face (first-to-second person) interaction may shed new light on the functional architecture of conscious vs. unconscious mental processes and the relationship between behavioral and communicative action in monkeys, primates, and humans. The present volume discusses the nature of mirror neurons as presented by the research team of Prof. Giacomo Rizzolatti (University of Parma), who originally discovered them, and the implications to our understanding of the evolution of brain, mind and communicative interaction in non-human primates and man.(Series B)

Brain Mapping

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123973163
Format: PDF, Docs
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Brain Mapping: A Comprehensive Reference offers foundational information for students and researchers across neuroscience. With over 300 articles and a media rich environment, this resource provides exhaustive coverage of the methods and systems involved in brain mapping, fully links the data to disease (presenting side by side maps of healthy and diseased brains for direct comparisons), and offers data sets and fully annotated color images. Each entry is built on a layered approach of the content – basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for experienced readers. Edited and authored by the leading experts in the field, this work offers the most reputable, easily searchable content with cross referencing across articles, a one-stop reference for students, researchers and teaching faculty. Broad overview of neuroimaging concepts with applications across the neurosciences and biomedical research Fully annotated color images and videos for best comprehension of concepts Layered content for readers of different levels of expertise Easily searchable entries for quick access of reputable information Live reference links to ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed

Brain Research in Addiction

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128135026
Format: PDF, Docs
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Brain Research in Addiction, Volume 235, the latest volume in this groundbreaking series on addiction, presents the neurobiological, pathological, cognitive and evolutionary aspects of addiction, with new chapters covering the Neurobiology of drug intake escalation, the Role of the orexinergic system in reward, Mental time travel and addictive behaviors, An evolutionary perspective on addiction- Addiction is the price we pay for innovation and adaptability, and how Cocaine exposure affects object-place recognition memory in non-human primates. Chapters in this serial are presented by leading researchers from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, who present addiction research from the bottom up, including how addiction evolved, basic research on animal models, and the psychiatric, psychological and cognitive characteristics of addictive behaviors in humans. Presents chapters written by global leaders in research on brain research and its relation to addiction Provides an interdisciplinary approach that will be of interest to many professionals Includes sections on the evolution of addiction, the effects of substance use on primate cognition, and addictive behaviors in humans

The Visually Responsive Neuron

Author: T.P. Hicks
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080862209
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This timely new volume presents broad-based and wide-ranging contributions on all aspects of vision. The material is grouped for presentation in a logical fashion in five main themes: peripheral processing; sensory integration in superior colliculus; organization of visual projections; development and plasticity; and neuronal encoding and visually guided behavior. The material spans from molecules to cognition, including overt behavior, and synaptic and membrane levels of analysis. The species studied also range over diverse phyla, while contributors too form a diverse group representing Europe, North America, and Asia. The Visually Responsive Neuron is an exciting and informative addition to the well known Progress in Brain Research series.

Decision Making Neural and Behavioural Approaches

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444626077
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This well-established international series examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging and promising subfields.This volume explores interdisciplinary research on decision making taking a neural and behavioural approach Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation, and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Primate Models of Children s Health and Developmental Disabilities

Author: Thomas Burbacher
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080554068
Format: PDF, ePub
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The rate of neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, mental retardation, hearing loss and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is rising in the United States. Although estimates of the prevalence of these disorders vary, figures from the CDC indicate that 4% of all school age children are developmentally disabled. During infancy, many important milestones in behavioral development are shared between human and nonhuman primates. Learning more about the causes of abnormal development in monkeys has provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in human infants. This book documents the latest research not commonly found in other references, and provides a comprehensive look at the results from decades of work with nonhuman primates as it relates to child development and disability. Includes hot topics such as early chemical exposures, immunological influences on development, low birth weight, endocrine disrupters, pediatric AIDS, origin of childhood psychopathologies and assisted reproductive technology Represents the significant body of work accumulated since funding for research on developmental disabilities has increased substantially in recent years