Explaining Understanding

Author: Stephen R. Grimm
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317414160
Format: PDF, Kindle
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What does it mean to understand something? What types of understanding can be distinguished? Is understanding always provided by explanations? And how is it related to knowledge? Such questions have attracted considerable interest in epistemology recently. These discussions, however, have not yet engaged insights about explanations and theories developed in philosophy of science. Conversely, philosophers of science have debated the nature of explanations and theories, while dismissing understanding as a psychological by-product. In this book, epistemologists and philosophers of science together address basic questions about the nature of understanding, providing a new overview of the field.? False theories, cognitive bias, transparency, coherency, and other important issues are discussed. Its 15 original chapters are essential reading for researchers and graduate students interested in the current debates about understanding.

Making Sense of the World

Author: Stephen R. Grimm
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190469862
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Making Sense of the World offers original work on the nature of understanding by a range of distinguished philosophers. Although some of the essays are by scholars well known for their work on understanding, many of the essays bring entirely new figures to the discussion. The main purpose of the volume is twofold: to advance debates in epistemology and the philosophy of science, where work on understanding has recently flourished, and to jumpstart new questions and debates about understanding in other areas of philosophy, such as aesthetics, ethics, and the philosophy of religion.

New Perspectives on Galileo

Author: Robert E. Butts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940099799X
Format: PDF
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The essays in this volume (except for the contribution of Dr. Le Grand) are extremely revised versions of papers originally delivered at a workshop on Galileo held in Blacksburg, Virginia in October, 1975. The meeting was organized by Professor Joseph Pitt and sponsored by the Department of Philosophy and Religion, The College of Arts and Sciences, and the Division of Research of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The papers that follow deal with problems OIf Galileo's philosophy of science, specific and general problems connected with his methodology, and with historical and conceptual questions concerning the relationship of his work to that of contemporaries and both earlier and later scientists. New perspectives take many forms. In this book the 'newness' has, for the most part, two forms. First, in the papers by Wisan, Shea, Le Grand and Wallace (the concerns will also appear in some of the other contributions), greatly enriched historical discoveries of how Galileo's science and its method ology developed are provided. It should be stressed that these papers are attempts to recapture a deep sense of the kind of science Galileo was creating. Other papers in the volume, for example, those by McMullin, Machamer, Butts and Pitt, underscore the importance of this historical venture by discussing various aspects of the philosophical background of Galileo's thought. The historical and philosophical evaluations and analyses compliment one another.

The Philosophy of Social Science

Author: Garry Potter
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780582369740
Format: PDF, Docs
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New Perspectives of the Philosophy of Social Science provides a comprehensive history, explanation and critique of empiricism and positivism within the natural and social sciences, as well as an overview of the interpretivist/hermeneutic tradition in social science. Questions concerning the criteria for judging truth and validity, the nature of rationality, social reality and scientificity, unfold in a uniquely accessible dialogue format. Students with no previous knowledge of this highly contested field will find themsleves taken on an entertaining and challenging philosophical journey. The dialogue anticipates the most frequently asked questions of such readers, provides clear explanations of all specialised terminology and contextualises contemporary debates. It thus transforms potential confusion into a clear understanding of complex issues. The text shows how the perspectives of earlier traditions persist in modified form, covering poststructuralism, postmodernism, critical theory, feminist epistemology and concludes with a critical realist account of both natural and social science. New Perspectives of the Philosophy of Social Science is essential reading for students of social theory and the philosophy of social science. Students across the full range of social science disciplines will find the book of interest. Sociology students will find it a particularly valuable resource.

Theory and Experiment

Author: Diderik Batens
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400928750
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is not "another collection of contributions on a traditional subject." Even more than we dared to expect during the preparatory stages, the papers in this volume prove that our thinking about science has taken a new turn and has reached a new stage. The progressive destruction of the received view has been a fascinating and healthy experience. At present, the period of destruction is over. A richer and more equilibrated analysis of a number of problems is possible and is being cru'ried out. In this sense, this book comes right on time. We owe a lot to the scholars of the Kuhnian period. They not only did away with obstacles, but in several respects instigated a shift in attention that changed history and philosophy of science in a irreversible way. A c1earcut example - we borrow it from the paper by Risto Hilpinen - concerns the study of science as a process, Rnd not only as a result. Moreover, they apparently reached several lasting results, e.g., concerning the tremendous impact of theoretical conceptions on empirical data. Apart from baffling people for several decades, this insight rules out an other return to simple-minded empiricism in the future.

On Max Horkheimer

Author: Seyla Benhabib
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262522076
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"An anthology of considerable quality.... On Max Horkheimer is an anthology of more than historical interest. Horkheimer was a thinker who asked, even when he failed adequately to answer, questions concerning the intellectual credentials and moral status of a social theory that aspires to be critical as well as interpretive. These are questions that have lost none of their relevance.... Horkheimer remains a figure to be reckoned with." -- David Levy, "Times Higher Education Supplement" Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), one of the founders of critical theory and a sometime colleague of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, and Walter Benjamin, has become a subject of renewed attention and appreciation in Germany in the last decade. This collection of essays by German and American scholars will help familiarize English-speaking readers with the most important results of this recent work and, in conjunction with a companion volume of Horkheimer's essays, Between Philosophy and Social Science, should provide a much fuller and deeper picture of his role in the history of modern social theory.

Grazer Philosophische Studien

Author: Julia Langkau
Publisher: Rodopi
ISBN: 9042030186
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Much recent work on concepts has been inspired by and developed within the bounds of the representational theory of the mind often taken for granted by philosophers of mind, cognitive scientists, and psychologists alike. The contributions to this volume take a more encompassing perspective on the issue of concepts. Rather than modelling details of our representational architecture in line with the dominant paradigm, they explore three traditional issues concerning concepts. Is mastery of a language necessary for thought? Do concepts reduce to abilities? Is the analysis of concepts a viable means to ascertain truths from the proverbial armchair? An introductory essay provides a rough geography of key ideas and issues shaping the overall debate on concepts within contemporary philosophy.

Philosophy of Science A Very Short Introduction

Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191579257
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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What is science? Is there a real difference between science and myth? Is science objective? Can science explain everything? This Very Short Introduction provides a concise overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science to set the scene, Samir Okasha goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories such as realism and anti-realism. He also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences, including the problem of classification in biology, and the nature of space and time in physics. The final chapter touches on the conflicts between science and religion, and explores whether science is ultimately a good thing. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Truth Objects Infinity

Author: Fabrice Pataut
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319459805
Format: PDF
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This volume features essays about and by Paul Benacerraf, whose ideas have circulated in the philosophical community since the early nineteen sixties, shaping key areas in the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of logic, and epistemology. The book started as a workshop held in Paris at the Collège de France in May 2012 with the participation of Paul Benacerraf. The introduction addresses the methodological point of the legitimate use of so-called “Princess Margaret Premises” in drawing philosophical conclusions from Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem. The book is then divided into three sections. The first is devoted to an assessment of the improved version of the original dilemma of “Mathematical Truth” due to Hartry Field: the challenge to the platonist is now to explain the reliability of our mathematical beliefs given the very subject matter of mathematics, either pure or applied. The second addresses the issue of the ontological status of numbers: Frege’s logicism, fictionalism, structuralism, and Bourbaki’s theory of structures are called up for an appraisal of Benacerraf’s negative conclusions of “What Numbers Could Not Be.” The third is devoted to supertasks and bears witness to the unique standing of Benacerraf’s first publication: “Tasks, Super-Tasks, and Modern Eleatics” in debates on Zeno’s paradox and associated paradoxes, infinitary mathematics, and constructivism and finitism in the philosophy of mathematics. Two yet unpublished essays by Benacerraf have been included in the volume: an early version of “Mathematical Truth” from 1968 and an essay on “What Numbers Could Not Be” from the mid 1970’s. A complete chronological bibliography of Benacerraf’s work to 2016 is provided.Essays by Jody Azzouni, Paul Benacerraf, Justin Clarke-Doane, Sébastien Gandon, Brice Halimi, Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia, Mary Leng, Antonio León-Sánchez and Ana C. León-Mejía, Marco Panza, Fabrice Pataut, Philippe de Rouilhan, Andrea Sereni, and Stewart Shapiro.